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      Splicing regulation by long noncoding RNAs

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          Massive high-throughput sequencing techniques allowed the identification of thousands of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and a plethora of different mRNA processing events occurring in higher organisms. Long ncRNAs can act directly as long transcripts or can be processed into active small si/miRNAs. They can modulate mRNA cleavage, translational repression or the epigenetic landscape of their target genes. Recently, certain long ncRNAs have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of alternative splicing in response to several stimuli or during disease. In this review, we focus on recent discoveries linking gene regulation by alternative splicing and its modulation by long and small ncRNAs.

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          Most cited references 154

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          Alternative Isoform Regulation in Human Tissue Transcriptomes

          Through alternative processing of pre-mRNAs, individual mammalian genes often produce multiple mRNA and protein isoforms that may have related, distinct or even opposing functions. Here we report an in-depth analysis of 15 diverse human tissue and cell line transcriptomes based on deep sequencing of cDNA fragments, yielding a digital inventory of gene and mRNA isoform expression. Analysis of mappings of sequence reads to exon-exon junctions indicated that 92-94% of human genes undergo alternative splicing (AS), ∼86% with a minor isoform frequency of 15% or more. Differences in isoform-specific read densities indicated that a majority of AS and of alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) events vary between tissues, while variation between individuals was ∼2- to 3-fold less common. Extreme or ‘switch-like’ regulation of splicing between tissues was associated with increased sequence conservation in regulatory regions and with generation of full-length open reading frames. Patterns of AS and APA were strongly correlated across tissues, suggesting coordinated regulation of these processes, and sequence conservation of a subset of known regulatory motifs in both alternative introns and 3′ UTRs suggested common involvement of specific factors in tissue-level regulation of both splicing and polyadenylation.
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            Landscape of transcription in human cells

            Summary Eukaryotic cells make many types of primary and processed RNAs that are found either in specific sub-cellular compartments or throughout the cells. A complete catalogue of these RNAs is not yet available and their characteristic sub-cellular localizations are also poorly understood. Since RNA represents the direct output of the genetic information encoded by genomes and a significant proportion of a cell’s regulatory capabilities are focused on its synthesis, processing, transport, modifications and translation, the generation of such a catalogue is crucial for understanding genome function. Here we report evidence that three quarters of the human genome is capable of being transcribed, as well as observations about the range and levels of expression, localization, processing fates, regulatory regions and modifications of almost all currently annotated and thousands of previously unannotated RNAs. These observations taken together prompt to a redefinition of the concept of a gene.
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              Regulation of microRNA biogenesis.

               Nguyet M Ha,  V. Kim (2014)
              MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that function as guide molecules in RNA silencing. Targeting most protein-coding transcripts, miRNAs are involved in nearly all developmental and pathological processes in animals. The biogenesis of miRNAs is under tight temporal and spatial control, and their dysregulation is associated with many human diseases, particularly cancer. In animals, miRNAs are ∼22 nucleotides in length, and they are produced by two RNase III proteins--Drosha and Dicer. miRNA biogenesis is regulated at multiple levels, including at the level of miRNA transcription; its processing by Drosha and Dicer in the nucleus and cytoplasm, respectively; its modification by RNA editing, RNA methylation, uridylation and adenylation; Argonaute loading; and RNA decay. Non-canonical pathways for miRNA biogenesis, including those that are independent of Drosha or Dicer, are also emerging.

                Author and article information

                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                16 March 2018
                7 February 2018
                7 February 2018
                : 46
                : 5
                : 2169-2184
                [1 ]Institute of Plant Sciences Paris-Saclay (IPS2), CNRS, INRA, Universities Paris-Sud, Evry and Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris-Cite, University of Paris-Saclay, Batiment 630, 91405 Orsay, France
                [2 ]Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral, CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Colectora Ruta Nacional 168 km 0, 3000 Santa Fe, Argentina
                Author notes
                To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +33 1 69153304; Fax: +33 1 69153304; Email: martin.crespi@ . Correspondence may also be addressed to Federico Ariel. Email: fariel@
                © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@

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