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      Presentation and 5-Year Follow-Up of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus in African-American and Caribbean-Hispanic Adolescents

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          Objective: We report the presentation and 5-year follow-up of 89 African-American (AA) and Caribbean-Hispanic (CH) youths with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) followed at the Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, N.Y., USA, from 1990 to 2000. Methods: The medical records of 89 patients with T2DM diagnosed between 1990 and 2000 were reviewed. Results: Over a 10-year period, the number of pediatric patients less than 18 years of age diagnosed with T2DM at the Montefiore Medical Center increased tenfold. At presentation, the mean age was 14 ± 2.3 years, the mean body mass index (BMI) was 34.4 ± 9 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, the female/male ratio was 1.6:1, and all these patients were pubertal. Acanthosis nigricans was present in 89% of the patients, polyuria and polydipsia occurred in 48%, weight loss occurred in 22%, and nearly 30% of the patients were asymptomatic at diagnosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in 5 patients. By 5 years after diagnosis, 45% of the patients were able to maintain an HgbA1C <7% with oral medications (metformin and/or glipizide); 18% required insulin (<0.4 U/kg/day) in addition to oral medications, and 37% did not require any medication. The mean insulin level, BMI and HgbA1C at the time of diagnosis did not predict treatment requirements for 3 years after diagnosis. Conclusions: Because the incidence of T2DM is increasing in adolescents, the natural history and optimal therapy for adolescents with T2DM need to be established.

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            Efficacy of metformin in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Multicenter Metformin Study Group.

            Sulfonylurea drugs have been the only oral therapy available for patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in the United States. Recently, however, metformin has been approved for the treatment of NIDDM. We performed two large, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, controlled studies in which metformin or another treatment was given for 29 weeks to moderately obese patients with NIDDM whose diabetes was inadequately controlled by diet (protocol 1: metformin vs. placebo; 289 patients), or diet plus glyburide (protocol 2: metformin and glyburide vs. metformin vs. glyburide; 632 patients). To determine efficacy we measured plasma glucose (while the patients were fasting and after the oral administration of glucose), lactate, lipids, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin before, during, and at the end of the study. In protocol 1, at the end of the study the 143 patients in the metformin group, as compared with the 146 patients in the placebo group, had lower mean (+/- SE) fasting plasma glucose concentrations (189 +/- 5 vs. 244 +/- 6 mg per deciliter [10.6 +/- 0.3 vs. 13.7 +/- 0.3 mmol per liter], P < 0.001) and glycosylated hemoglobin values (7.1 +/- 0.1 percent vs. 8.6 +/- 0.2 percent, P < 0.001). In protocol 2, the 213 patients given metformin and glyburide, as compared with the 210 patients treated with glyburide alone, had lower mean fasting plasma glucose concentrations (187 +/- 4 vs. 261 +/- 4 mg per deciliter [10.5 +/- 0.2 vs. 14.6 +/- 0.2 mmol per liter], P < 0.001) and glycosylated hemoglobin values (7.1 +/- 0.1 percent vs. 8.7 +/- 0.1 percent, P < 0.001). The effect of metformin alone was similar to that of glyburide alone. Eighteen percent of the patients given metformin and glyburide had symptoms compatible with hypoglycemia, as compared with 3 percent in the glyburide group and 2 percent in the metformin group. In both protocols the patients given metformin had statistically significant decreases in plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, whereas the values in the respective control groups did not change. There were no significant changes in fasting plasma lactate concentrations in any of the groups. Metformin monotherapy and combination therapy with metformin and sulfonylurea are well tolerated and improve glycemic control and lipid concentrations in patients with NIDDM whose diabetes is poorly controlled with diet or sulfonylurea therapy alone.
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              Metabolic effects of metformin in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

              The metabolic effects and mechanism of action of metformin are still poorly understood, despite the fact that it has been used to treat patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) for more than 30 years. In 10 obese patients with NIDDM, we used a combination of isotope dilution, indirect calorimetry, bioimpedance, and tissue-balance techniques to assess the effects of metformin on systemic lactate, glucose, and free-fatty-acid turnover; lactate oxidation and the conversion of lactate to glucose; skeletal-muscle glucose and lactate metabolism; body composition; and energy expenditure before and after four months of treatment. Metformin treatment decreased the mean (+/- SD) glycosylated hemoglobin value from 13.2 +/- 2.2 percent to 10.5 +/- 1.6 percent (P < 0.001) and reduced fasting plasma glucose concentrations from 220 +/- 41 to 155 +/- 28 mg per deciliter (12.2 +/- 0.7 to 8.6 +/- 0.5 mmol per liter) (P < 0.001). Although resting energy expenditure did not change, the patients lost 2.7 +/- 1.3 kg of weight (P < 0.001), 88 percent of which was adipose tissue. The mean (+/- SE) rate of plasma glucose turnover (hepatic glucose output and systemic glucose disposal) decreased from 2.8 +/- 0.2 to 2.0 +/- 0.2 mg per kilogram of body weight per minute (15.3 +/- 0.9 to 10.8 +/- 0.9 mumol per kilogram per minute) (P < 0.001), as a result of a decrease in hepatic glucose output; systemic glucose clearance did not change. The rate of conversion of lactate to glucose (gluconeogenesis) decreased by 37 percent (P < 0.001), whereas lactate oxidation increased by 25 percent (P < 0.001). There were no changes in the plasma lactate concentration, plasma lactate turnover, muscle lactate release, plasma free-fatty-acid turnover, or uptake of glucose by muscle. Metformin acts primarily by decreasing hepatic glucose output, largely by inhibiting gluconeogenesis. It also seems to induce weight loss, preferentially involving adipose tissue.

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                29 August 2003
                : 60
                : 3
                : 121-126
                Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Children’s Hospital at Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, N.Y., USA
                72523 Horm Res 2003;60:121–126
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 26, Pages: 6
                Original Paper


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