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Incretin-based therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Nature reviews. Endocrinology

agonists, Receptors, Glucagon, therapeutic use, adverse effects, administration & dosage, Incretins, Humans, Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors, drug therapy, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2

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      Abstract

      Incretin-based drugs, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, are now routinely used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. These agents regulate glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms, their use is associated with low rates of hypoglycemia, and they either do not affect body weight (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors), or promote weight loss (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists). The success of exenatide and sitagliptin, the first therapies in their respective drug classes to be based on incretins, has fostered the development of multiple new agents that are currently in late stages of clinical development or awaiting approval. This Review highlights our current understanding of the mechanisms of action of incretin-based drugs, with an emphasis on the emerging clinical profile of new agents.

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      The incretin system: glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes.

      Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a gut-derived incretin hormone that stimulates insulin and suppresses glucagon secretion, inhibits gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and food intake. Therapeutic approaches for enhancing incretin action include degradation-resistant GLP-1 receptor agonists (incretin mimetics), and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity (incretin enhancers). Clinical trials with the incretin mimetic exenatide (two injections per day or long-acting release form once weekly) and liraglutide (one injection per day) show reductions in fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations, and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (1-2%), associated with weight loss (2-5 kg). The most common adverse event associated with GLP-1 receptor agonists is mild nausea, which lessens over time. Orally administered DPP-4 inhibitors, such as sitagliptin and vildagliptin, reduce HbA1c by 0.5-1.0%, with few adverse events and no weight gain. These new classes of antidiabetic agents, and incretin mimetics and enhancers, also expand beta-cell mass in preclinical studies. However, long-term clinical studies are needed to determine the benefits of targeting the incretin axis for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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        The biology of incretin hormones.

        Gut peptides, exemplified by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted in a nutrient-dependent manner and stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Both GIP and GLP-1 also promote beta cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, leading to expansion of beta cell mass. GLP-1, but not GIP, controls glycemia via additional actions on glucose sensors, inhibition of gastric emptying, food intake and glucagon secretion. Furthermore, GLP-1, unlike GIP, potently stimulates insulin secretion and reduces blood glucose in human subjects with type 2 diabetes. This article summarizes current concepts of incretin action and highlights the potential therapeutic utility of GLP-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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          Efficacy and Safety Comparison of Liraglutide, Glimepiride, and Placebo, All in Combination With Metformin, in Type 2 Diabetes

          OBJECTIVE—The efficacy and safety of adding liraglutide (a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist) to metformin were compared with addition of placebo or glimepiride to metformin in subjects previously treated with oral antidiabetes (OAD) therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In this 26-week, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo- and active-controlled, parallel-group trial, 1,091 subjects were randomly assigned (2:2:2:1:2) to once-daily liraglutide (either 0.6, 1.2, or 1.8 mg/day injected subcutaneously), to placebo, or to glimepiride (4 mg once daily). All treatments were in combination therapy with metformin (1g twice daily). Enrolled subjects (aged 25–79 years) had type 2 diabetes, A1C of 7–11% (previous OAD monotherapy for ≥3 months) or 7–10% (previous OAD combination therapy for ≥3 months), and BMI ≤40 kg/m2. RESULTS—A1C values were significantly reduced in all liraglutide groups versus the placebo group (P < 0.0001) with mean decreases of 1.0% for 1.8 mg liraglutide, 1.2 mg liraglutide, and glimepiride and 0.7% for 0.6 mg liraglutide and an increase of 0.1% for placebo. Body weight decreased in all liraglutide groups (1.8–2.8 kg) compared with an increase in the glimepiride group (1.0 kg; P < 0.0001). The incidence of minor hypoglycemia with liraglutide (∼3%) was comparable to that with placebo but less than that with glimepiride (17%; P < 0.001). Nausea was reported by 11–19% of the liraglutide-treated subjects versus 3–4% in the placebo and glimepiride groups. The incidence of nausea declined over time. CONCLUSIONS—In subjects with type 2 diabetes, once-daily liraglutide induced similar glycemic control, reduced body weight, and lowered the occurrence of hypoglycemia compared with glimepiride, when both had background therapy of metformin.
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            Journal
            10.1038/nrendo.2009.48
            19444259

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