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Brazilian Flora 2020: Innovation and collaboration to meet Target 1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC)

Rodriguésia

Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro

database, diversity, hotspots, taxonomy, banco de dados, diversidade, hotspots, taxonomia

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      Abstract

      Abstract The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) was established by the Conference of Parties in 2002 to decrease the loss of plant diversity, reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. To achieve this overarching goal, the GSPC has established a series of targets, one of which is to ensure that plant diversity is well understood, so that it can be effectively conserved and used in a sustainable manner. Brazil hosts more than 46,000 species of plants, algae and fungi, representing one of the most biodiverse countries on Earth, and playing a key role in the GSPC. To meet the GSPC goals of Target 1 and facilitate access to plant diversity, Brazil committed to preparing the List of Species of the Brazilian Flora (2008-2015) and the Brazilian Flora 2020 (2016-present). Managing all the information associated with such great biodiversity has proven to be an extremely challenging task. Here, we synthesize the history of these projects, focusing on the multidisciplinary and collaborative approach adopted to develop and manage the inclusion of all the knowledge generated though digital information systems. We further describe the methods used, challenges faced, and strategies adopted, as well as summarize advances to date and prospects for completing the Brazilian flora in 2020.

      Translated abstract

      Resumo A Estratégia Global para a Conservação das Plantas (GSPC) foi estabelecida pela Conferência das Partes em 2002 para diminuir a perda da diversidade vegetal, reduzir a pobreza e contribuir para o desenvolvimento sustentável. Para atingir um objetivo tão abrangente, a GSPC estabeleceu uma série de tarefas, uma das quais é assegurar um bom conhecimento da diversidade vegetal para que a mesma possa ser conservada de forma efetiva e utilizada de maneira sustentável. O Brasil possui mais de 46 mil espécies de plantas, algas e fungos, representando um dos países com maior biodiversidade no planeta, sendo um participante chave na GSPC. Para atingir os objetivos da GSPC e possibilitar o acesso à diversidade de plantas, o Brasil se comprometeu em preparar a Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil (2008-2015) e a Flora do Brasil 2020 (2016 até o presente). Gerenciar todas as informações relacionadas a esta enorme biodiversidade provou ser uma tarefa extremamente desafiadora. Neste artigo, sintetizamos a história destes projetos e a abordagem multidisciplinar e colaborativa adotada para desenvolver e gerenciar a inclusão de todo o conhecimento gerado em sistemas de informação digitais. Apresentamos ainda os métodos utilizados, desafios enfrentados, e estratégias adotadas, bem como sintetizamos os avanços até o momento e perspectivas para completar a flora do Brasil em 2020.

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      Most cited references 20

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      Growing knowledge: an overview of Seed Plant diversity in Brazil

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      Abstract An updated inventory of Brazilian seed plants is presented and offers important insights into the country's biodiversity. This work started in 2010, with the publication of the Plants and Fungi Catalogue, and has been updated since by more than 430 specialists working online. Brazil is home to 32,086 native Angiosperms and 23 native Gymnosperms, showing an increase of 3% in its species richness in relation to 2010. The Amazon Rainforest is the richest Brazilian biome for Gymnosperms, while the Atlantic Rainforest is the richest one for Angiosperms. There was a considerable increment in the number of species and endemism rates for biomes, except for the Amazon that showed a decrease of 2.5% of recorded endemics. However, well over half of Brazillian seed plant species (57.4%) is endemic to this territory. The proportion of life-forms varies among different biomes: trees are more expressive in the Amazon and Atlantic Rainforest biomes while herbs predominate in the Pampa, and lianas are more expressive in the Amazon, Atlantic Rainforest, and Pantanal. This compilation serves not only to quantify Brazilian biodiversity, but also to highlight areas where there information is lacking and to provide a framework for the challenge faced in conserving Brazil's unique and diverse flora.
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        Darwin Core: An Evolving Community-Developed Biodiversity Data Standard

        Biodiversity data derive from myriad sources stored in various formats on many distinct hardware and software platforms. An essential step towards understanding global patterns of biodiversity is to provide a standardized view of these heterogeneous data sources to improve interoperability. Fundamental to this advance are definitions of common terms. This paper describes the evolution and development of Darwin Core, a data standard for publishing and integrating biodiversity information. We focus on the categories of terms that define the standard, differences between simple and relational Darwin Core, how the standard has been implemented, and the community processes that are essential for maintenance and growth of the standard. We present case-study extensions of the Darwin Core into new research communities, including metagenomics and genetic resources. We close by showing how Darwin Core records are integrated to create new knowledge products documenting species distributions and changes due to environmental perturbations.
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          Diversity of ferns and lycophytes in Brazil

          Abstract This compilation of ferns and lycophytes in Brazil is an update of the one published in 2010 in Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos do Brasil. The methodology consisted in collecting data from regional checklists, taxonomic revisions, and selected databases. Invited specialists improved the list accessing a website housed at the Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. The results show 1,253 species: 1,111 of ferns and 142 of lycophytes. This number is 6.5% higher than the previous one (1,176 spp.). The percentage of endemic species decreased from 38.2% to 36.7%. We recognized 36 families and 133 genera (vs. 33 families, 121 genera in 2010). The 10 most diverse families are Pteridaceae (196 spp.), Dryopteridaceae (179), Polypodiaceae (164), Hymenophyllaceae (90), Thelypteridaceae (86), Aspleniaceae (78), Lycopodiaceae (64), Selaginellaceae (55), Anemiaceae (51), and Cyatheaceae (45). The three most diverse genera are still Elaphoglossum (87 spp.), Thelypteris (85), and Asplenium (74). The richest phytogeographic domain continues to be in the Atlantic Rainforest with 883 species which also has the largest number of endemic and threatened species, followed by the Amazon Rainforest (503), Cerrado (269), Pantanal (30), Caatinga (26), and Pampa (eight). Minas Gerais remains as the richest state (657 spp. vs. 580 in 2010).
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            orgnameThe Brazil Flora Group Brazil
            Journal
            rod
            Rodriguésia
            Rodriguésia
            Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
            0370-6583
            2175-7860
            December 2018
            : 69
            : 4
            : 1513-1527
            S2175-78602018000401513
            10.1590/2175-7860201869402

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

            Counts
            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 42, Pages: 15
            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Brazil
            Categories
            GSPC - Global Strategy for Plant Conservation

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