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      Prognostic Value of Natriuretic Peptides in Chagas’ Disease: A 3-Year Follow-Up Investigation

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          Abstract

          Background: Chagas’ disease (CD) affects around 18 million people in Latin America. To determine the diagnostic and prognostic value of natriuretic peptides in patients with CD, we measured atrial (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and compared the findings with other dilated cardiomyopathies (DCM). Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 111 CD patients, 62 patients with DCM due to other causes, and 43 gender- and age-matched healthy subjects. The CD and DCM patients were subdivided according to their NYHA classification. Natriuretic peptide concentrations were determined by immunoradiometric assays. Results: ANP and more pronounced BNP levels were increased in CD and DCM patients in relation to the NYHA class. Circulating BNP concentrations were higher in CD patients in NYHA classes I–II than in the corresponding DCM patients (p = 0.020). Importantly, ANP and BNP were already significantly elevated in CD patients without systolic ventricular dysfunction (p ≤ 0.001). In CD patients, both peptides were highly correlated with echocardiographic parameters (p < 10<sup>–14</sup>). Both ANP and BNP had comparable ability to predict death or the necessity for heart transplant (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Natriuretic peptide levels can be used as a marker of asymptomatic CD without ventricular dysfunction and thus could be an ideal tool to identify these patients for early therapy.

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          Most cited references 21

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          The prognostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

          Brain (B-type) natriuretic peptide is a neurohormone synthesized predominantly in ventricular myocardium. Although the circulating level of this neurohormone has been shown to provide independent prognostic information in patients with transmural myocardial infarction, few data are available for patients with acute coronary syndromes in the absence of ST-segment elevation. We measured B-type natriuretic peptide in plasma specimens obtained a mean (+/-SD) of 40+/-20 hours after the onset of ischemic symptoms in 2525 patients from the Orbofiban in Patients with Unstable Coronary Syndromes-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 16 study. The base-line level of B-type natriuretic peptide was correlated with the risk of death, heart failure, and myocardial infarction at 30 days and 10 months. The unadjusted rate of death increased in a stepwise fashion among patients in increasing quartiles of base-line B-type natriuretic peptide levels (P< 0.001). This association remained significant in subgroups of patients who had myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation (P=0.02), patients who had myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation (P<0.001), and patients who had unstable angina (P<0.001). After adjustment for independent predictors of the long-term risk of death, the odds ratios for death at 10 months in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of B-type natriuretic peptide were 3.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 13.3), 4.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 13.7), and 5.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 19.7). The level of B-type natriuretic peptide was also associated with the risk of new or recurrent myocardial infarction (P=0.01) and new or worsening heart failure (P<0.001) at 10 months. A single measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide, obtained in the first few days after the onset of ischemic symptoms, provides powerful information for use in risk stratification across the spectrum of acute coronary syndromes. This finding suggests that cardiac neurohormonal activation may be a unifying feature among patients at high risk for death after acute coronary syndromes.
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            Cardiac fibrosis in mice lacking brain natriuretic peptide.

            Cardiac fibrosis, defined as a proliferation of interstitial fibroblasts and biosynthesis of extracellular matrix components in the ventricles of the heart, is a consequence of remodeling processes initiated by pathologic events associated with a variety of cardiovascular disorders, which leads to abnormal myocardial stiffness and, ultimately, ventricular dysfunction. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a cardiac hormone produced primarily by ventricular myocytes, and its plasma concentrations are markedly elevated in patients with congestive heart failure and acute myocardial infarction. However, its precise functional significance has been undefined. In this paper, we report the generation of mice with targeted disruption of BNP (Nppb(-/-) mice). We observed multifocal fibrotic lesions in the ventricles from Nppb(-/-) mice. No signs of systemic hypertension and ventricular hypertrophy are noted in Nppb(-/-) mice. In response to ventricular pressure overload, focal fibrotic lesions are increased in size and number in Nppb(-/-) mice, whereas no focal fibrotic changes are found in wild-type littermates (Nppb(+/+) mice). This study establishes BNP as a cardiomyocyte-derived antifibrotic factor in vivo and provides evidence for its role as a local regulator of ventricular remodeling.
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              B-type natriuretic peptide predicts sudden death in patients with chronic heart failure.

              Given the high incidence of sudden death in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and the efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, an appropriate tool for the prediction of sudden death is desirable. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has prognostic significance in CHF, and the stimuli for its production cause electrophysiological abnormalities. This study tests BNP levels as a predictor of sudden death. BNP levels, in addition to other neurohormonal, clinical, and hemodynamic variables, were obtained from 452 patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < or =35%. For prediction of sudden death, only survivors without heart transplantation (HTx) or a mechanical assist device and patients who died suddenly were analyzed. Up to 3 years, 293 patients survived without HTx or a mechanical assist device, 89 patients died, and 65 patients underwent HTx. Mode of death was sudden in 44 patients (49%), whereas 31 patients (35%) had pump failure and 14 patients (16%) died from other causes. Univariate risk factors of sudden death were log BNP (P=0.0006), log N-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide (P=0.003), LVEF (P=0.005), log N-terminal BNP (P=0.006), systolic blood pressure (P=0.01), big endothelin (P=0.03), and NYHA class (P=0.04). In the multivariate model, log BNP level was the only independent predictor of sudden death (P=0.0006). Using a cutoff point of log BNP <2.11 (130 pg/mL), Kaplan-Meier sudden death-free survival rates were significantly higher in patients below (99%) compared with patients above (81%) this cutoff point (P=0.0001). BNP levels are a strong, independent predictor of sudden death in patients with CHF.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2008
                June 2008
                12 December 2007
                : 110
                : 4
                : 217-225
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Felicio Rocho Hospital, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, and bJulia Kubitchek Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; cDepartment of Cardiology and Pneumonology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, and dUniversity of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
                Article
                112403 Cardiology 2008;110:217–225
                10.1159/000112403
                18073475
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 29, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Research

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