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      Apophyseal avulsion fractures of the pelvis. A review

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          Background and aim of the work: Fractures of the pelvis classically occur in adolescent during sports activities with forceful and repetitive contractions or passive lengthening acting on not yet ossified growth plates. Their misdiagnosis lead to disability, chronic pain and decrease of performances. Evidence based treatment guidelines do not exist; aim of this paper is to point out clinical outcomes, return to sport rates and complications of surgical and conservative approach. Methods: A systematic search based on MEDLINE database was performed in August 2017 to identify all published articles from 2010 to 2017 reporting outcomes, return to sport and complications rates after surgical and non-operative treatment of avulsion fractures of the pelvis. Results: Mean age was 14,5 years with anterior inferior iliac spine avulsion representing the most common injury (46%), followed by anterior superior iliac spine avulsion (32%), ischial tuberosity avulsion (12%) and iliac crest avulsion (11%). Rates of excellent outcome and return to sports at pre-injury levels were higher after surgical treatment; surgery has a higher risk of heterotopic ossification (9%) compared to conservative treatment (1,8%), whereas the risk of non-unions is lower (0% versus 2,5%). Conclusions: Surgery is preferred for major dislocations and fragment sizes, providing a faster return to pre-injury level of activity, decreasing the risk of pseudoarthrosis. Conservative treatment is advisable for minimally displaced fractures when a rapid recovery is not required; patient and his family should be informed on the risk of non-unions and the eventuality of a delayed surgical approach. (www.actabiomedica.it)

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          Most cited references 31

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          The Iliac apophysis; an invaluable sign in the management of scoliosis.

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            Acute avulsion fractures of the pelvis in adolescent competitive athletes: prevalence, location and sports distribution of 203 cases collected.

             F. Rossi,  S. Dragoni (2001)
            To describe the prevalence, location and sports distribution of pelvic avulsion fractures in adolescent competitive athletes. One thousand two hundred and thirty-eight radiographs of the pelvis taken for focal traumatic symptoms in athletes with an age range of 11-35 years over a period of 22 years were reviewed. One hundred and ninety-eight adolescent athletes were affected by 203 avulsion fractures of the pelvic apophyses (five cases presented multiple locations). The localisation was the ischial tuberosity (IT) in 109 cases, anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) in 45 cases, anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) in 39 cases, superior corner of pubic symphysis (SCPS) in 7 cases and iliac crest (IC) in 3 cases. Soccer (74 cases) and gymnastics (55 cases) were the sports with the highest number of avulsion fractures documented. Apophyseal avulsion fractures of the pelvis in adolescent competitive athletes are most common in soccer and gymnastics. The lesions are usually the consequence of sudden and forceful muscle-tendon contractions during sport activities. Plain radiographs, are determinant for the diagnosis.
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              Early osteoarthritic changes of human femoral head cartilage subsequent to femoro-acetabular impingement.

              To use the surgical samples of patients with femoro-acetabular impingement due to a nonspherical head to analyze tissue morphology and early cartilage changes in a mechanical model of hip osteoarthritis (OA). An aberrant nonspherical shape of the femoral head has been assumed to cause an abutment conflict (impingement mechanism) of the hip with subsequent cartilage lesions of the acetabular rim and surface alterations of the nonspherical portion of the head. In this study, 22 samples of the nonspherical portions of the head have been obtained during hip surgery from young adults (mean 30.4 years, range 19-45 years) with an impingement conflict. The samples were first compared with tissue from the same area obtained from six age-matched deceased persons (control group) with normal hip morphology and second with cartilage from 14 older patients with advanced OA. All samples were characterized histologically and hyaline cartilage was graded according to the Mankin criteria. They were further subjected to examination on a molecular basis by immunohistology for cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), tenascin-C and a collagenase cleavage product (COL2-3/4C(long)) and by in situ hybridization for collagen type I and collagen type II. All samples from the patient group revealed hyaline cartilage with degenerative signs. According to the Mankin criteria, the cartilage alterations were significantly different when compared with the control group (p=0.007) but were less distinct when compared with cartilage from patients with advanced OA (p=0.014). Positive staining and distribution pattern for COMP, tenascin-C and COL2-3/4C(long) showed similarities between the samples from the impingement group and osteoarthritic cartilage but they were distinctly different when compared with healthy cartilage. Levels of collagen I and II transcripts were upregulated in 6 and 10, respectively, of the 14 samples with OA and in 9 and 12, respectively, of the 22 samples from the impingement group. None of the samples from the control group showed upregulation of Collagen I and II mRNA. The aberrant nonspherical portion of the femoral head in young patients with an impingement conflict consists of hyaline cartilage which shows clear degenerative signs similar to the findings in osteoarthritic cartilage. The tissue alterations are distinctly different when compared with a control group, which substantiates an impingement conflict as an early mechanism for degeneration at the hip joint periphery.

                Author and article information

                Acta Biomed
                Acta Biomed
                Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis
                Mattioli 1885 (Italy )
                : 89
                : 4
                : 470-476
                Department of Medicine and Surgery, Orthopaedics and Traumatology Clinic, Parma University Hospital, Parma, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Filippo Calderazzi, MD Department of Medicine and Surgery Orthopaedics and Traumatology Clinic, Parma University Hospital, Via Gramsci 14, Parma, Italy Tel. +390521702859 Fax: +390521993030 E-mail: filippo.calderazzi@ 123456icloud.com

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License



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