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      Emerging Diversity in Lipid–Protein Interactions


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          Membrane lipids interact with proteins in a variety of ways, ranging from providing a stable membrane environment for proteins to being embedded in to detailed roles in complicated and well-regulated protein functions. Experimental and computational advances are converging in a rapidly expanding research area of lipid–protein interactions. Experimentally, the database of high-resolution membrane protein structures is growing, as are capabilities to identify the complex lipid composition of different membranes, to probe the challenging time and length scales of lipid–protein interactions, and to link lipid–protein interactions to protein function in a variety of proteins. Computationally, more accurate membrane models and more powerful computers now enable a detailed look at lipid–protein interactions and increasing overlap with experimental observations for validation and joint interpretation of simulation and experiment. Here we review papers that use computational approaches to study detailed lipid–protein interactions, together with brief experimental and physiological contexts, aiming at comprehensive coverage of simulation papers in the last five years. Overall, a complex picture of lipid–protein interactions emerges, through a range of mechanisms including modulation of the physical properties of the lipid environment, detailed chemical interactions between lipids and proteins, and key functional roles of very specific lipids binding to well-defined binding sites on proteins. Computationally, despite important limitations, molecular dynamics simulations with current computer power and theoretical models are now in an excellent position to answer detailed questions about lipid–protein interactions.

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          High-resolution crystal structure of an engineered human beta2-adrenergic G protein-coupled receptor.

          Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors constitute the largest family of eukaryotic signal transduction proteins that communicate across the membrane. We report the crystal structure of a human beta2-adrenergic receptor-T4 lysozyme fusion protein bound to the partial inverse agonist carazolol at 2.4 angstrom resolution. The structure provides a high-resolution view of a human G protein-coupled receptor bound to a diffusible ligand. Ligand-binding site accessibility is enabled by the second extracellular loop, which is held out of the binding cavity by a pair of closely spaced disulfide bridges and a short helical segment within the loop. Cholesterol, a necessary component for crystallization, mediates an intriguing parallel association of receptor molecules in the crystal lattice. Although the location of carazolol in the beta2-adrenergic receptor is very similar to that of retinal in rhodopsin, structural differences in the ligand-binding site and other regions highlight the challenges in using rhodopsin as a template model for this large receptor family.
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            The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Structure of Cell Membranes

            A fluid mosaic model is presented for the gross organization and structure of the proteins and lipids of biological membranes. The model is consistent with the restrictions imposed by thermodynamics. In this model, the proteins that are integral to the membrane are a heterogeneous set of globular molecules, each arranged in an amphipathic structure, that is, with the ionic and highly polar groups protruding from the membrane into the aqueous phase, and the nonpolar groups largely buried in the hydrophobic interior of the membrane. These globular molecules are partially embedded in a matrix of phospholipid. The bulk of the phospholipid is organized as a discontinuous, fluid bilayer, although a small fraction of the lipid may interact specifically with the membrane proteins. The fluid mosaic structure is therefore formally analogous to a two-dimensional oriented solution of integral proteins (or lipoproteins) in the viscous phospholipid bilayer solvent. Recent experiments with a wide variety of techniqes and several different membrane systems are described, all of which abet consistent with, and add much detail to, the fluid mosaic model. It therefore seems appropriate to suggest possible mechanisms for various membrane functions and membrane-mediated phenomena in the light of the model. As examples, experimentally testable mechanisms are suggested for cell surface changes in malignant transformation, and for cooperative effects exhibited in the interactions of membranes with some specific ligands. Note added in proof: Since this article was written, we have obtained electron microscopic evidence (69) that the concanavalin A binding sites on the membranes of SV40 virus-transformed mouse fibroblasts (3T3 cells) are more clustered than the sites on the membranes of normal cells, as predicted by the hypothesis represented in Fig. 7B. T-here has also appeared a study by Taylor et al. (70) showing the remarkable effects produced on lymphocytes by the addition of antibodies directed to their surface immunoglobulin molecules. The antibodies induce a redistribution and pinocytosis of these surface immunoglobulins, so that within about 30 minutes at 37 degrees C the surface immunoglobulins are completely swept out of the membrane. These effects do not occur, however, if the bivalent antibodies are replaced by their univalent Fab fragments or if the antibody experiments are carried out at 0 degrees C instead of 37 degrees C. These and related results strongly indicate that the bivalent antibodies produce an aggregation of the surface immunoglobulin molecules in the plane of the membrane, which can occur only if the immunoglobulin molecules are free to diffuse in the membrane. This aggregation then appears to trigger off the pinocytosis of the membrane components by some unknown mechanism. Such membrane transformations may be of crucial importance in the induction of an antibody response to an antigen, as well as iv other processes of cell differentiation.
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              Structure of the TRPV1 ion channel determined by electron cryo-microscopy

              Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are sensors for a wide range of cellular and environmental signals, but elucidating how these channels respond to physical and chemical stimuli has been hampered by a lack of detailed structural information. Here, we exploit advances in electron cryo-microscopy to determine the structure of a mammalian TRP channel, TRPV1, at 3.4Å resolution, breaking the side-chain resolution barrier for membrane proteins without crystallization. Like voltage-gated channels, TRPV1 exhibits four-fold symmetry around a central ion pathway formed by transmembrane helices S5–S6 and the intervening pore loop, which is flanked by S1–S4 voltage sensor-like domains. TRPV1 has a wide extracellular ‘mouth’ with short selectivity filter. The conserved ‘TRP domain’ interacts with the S4–S5 linker, consistent with its contribution to allosteric modulation. Subunit organization is facilitated by interactions among cytoplasmic domains, including N-terminal ankyrin repeats. These observations provide a structural blueprint for understanding unique aspects of TRP channel function.

                Author and article information

                Chem Rev
                Chem. Rev
                Chemical Reviews
                American Chemical Society
                13 February 2019
                08 May 2019
                : 119
                : 9 , Biomembrane Structure, Dynamics, and Reactions
                : 5775-5848
                []Centre for Molecular Simulation and Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary , 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
                []Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute and Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen , Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society

                This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Non-Commercial No Derivative Works (CC-BY-NC-ND) Attribution License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article, and creation of adaptations, all for non-commercial purposes.

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