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      RENA Study: Cross-Sectional Study to Evaluate CKD Prevalence in Portugal

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          Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major global public health problem associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity, premature mortality, and decreased quality of life. In Portugal, the PREVADIAB study showed a prevalence of CKD stages 3–5 of 6.1%. To overcome the limitations of the PREVADIAB study, the RENA study aimed to provide an estimate of the prevalence of CKD at a national level and to characterize CKD patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including users of Primary Health Care Units aged 18 or more. After obtaining written informed consent, sociodemographic and clinical data were recorded through a structured questionnaire, anthropometric measurements were taken, and blood and urine samples were collected. All participants initially meeting the criteria for CKD were contacted at least 3 months after the initial assessment for confirmation of the analytical results. Results: A total of 3,135 individuals were included, 65.4% were female, and the mean age was 56.7 ± 15.9 years. The prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes was 38, 32, and 16%, respectively, and 31% were obese. After data adjustment by gender, age group, and geographical region, the global prevalence of CKD was 20.9% (95% CI: 6.5–35.3%), with no differences between genders and a significant increase with the advance of the age groups. Conclusion: Our study showed a CKD prevalence above the worldwide and Europe average. Despite the study limitations, it has become clear that it is urgent to identify CKD patients earlier and to develop awareness and educational programs to prevent CKD and its associated diseases.

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          Most cited references 25

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          The risk of cardiovascular disease mortality associated with microalbuminuria and gross proteinuria in persons with older-onset diabetes mellitus.

          Despite the numerous studies on the relation of albuminuria with increased risk of all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus, it remains uncertain whether microalbuminuria and/or gross proteinuria are independent risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Moreover, the association of albuminuria with cardiovascular mortality in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus has not been well described in US populations. To estimate the relative risks (RRs) for the associations of microalbuminuria and gross proteinuria with cardiovascular disease mortality among persons with older-onset diabetes mellitus. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 840 people with older-onset diabetes mellitus who provided urine samples in the 1984-1986 examination of a population-based study of diabetic persons. The presence of microalbuminuria was determined by an agglutination inhibition assay and gross proteinuria by a reagent strip. The main outcome was time to mortality from cardiovascular disease, as determined from death certificates. Of the 840 older-onset diabetic persons, 54.8% had normoalbuminuria, while 24.8% had microalbuminuria and 20.5% had gross proteinuria. During the 12-year follow-up (6127 person-years), we identified 364 deaths from cardiovascular disease. Compared with persons with normoalbuminuria, those with microalbuminuria and gross proteinuria had significantly higher risks of cardiovascular mortality. The RR as controlled for age, sex, glycemic control, insulin use, alcohol intake, physical activity, cardiovascular disease history, antihypertensive use, and retinopathy severity, was 1.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-2.40) for those with microalbuminuria and 2.61 (95% CI, 1.99-3.43) for those with gross proteinuria. Further adjustment for other factors did not change the relations we found. When the end point used was mortality from coronary heart disease, stroke, or all causes, the increased risks were significant for both microalbuminuria (adjusted RRs [95% CIs], 1.96 [1.42-2.72], 2.20 [1.29-3.75], and 1.68 [1.35-2.09], respectively) and gross proteinuria (adjusted RRs [95% CIs], 2.73 [1.95-3.81], 2.33 [1.28-4.24], and 2.47 [1.97-3.10], respectively). Results from our population-based study strongly suggest that both microalbuminuria and gross proteinuria were significantly associated with subsequent mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and coronary heart diseases. These associations were independent of known cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes-related variables.
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            The systemic nature of CKD

            Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects numerous organs and systems, which in turn have effects on kidney function. This Review provides an overview of CKD as a systemic disease and discusses the multidirectional links between the kidney, bone, nervous and immune systems, and metabolism.
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              Is Open Access

              The burden of comorbidity in people with chronic kidney disease stage 3: a cohort study

              Background Multimorbidity is a growing concern for healthcare systems, with many countries experiencing demographic transition to older population profiles. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common but often considered in isolation. The extent and prognostic significance of its comorbidities is not well understood. This study aimed to assess the extent and prognostic significance of 11 comorbidities in people with CKD stage 3. Methods A prospective cohort of 1741 people with CKD stage 3 was recruited from primary care between August 2008 and March 2010. Participants underwent medical history, clinical assessment, blood and urine sampling. Comorbidity was defined by self-reported doctor-diagnosed condition, disease-specific medication or blood results (hemoglobin), and treatment burden as number of ongoing medications. Logistic regression was used to identify associations with greater treatment burden (taking >5 medications) and greater multimorbidity (3 or more comorbidities). Kaplan Meier plots and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate associations between multimorbidity and all-cause mortality. Results One thousand seven hundred forty-one people were recruited, mean age 72.9 +/−9 years. Mean baseline eGFR was 52 ml/min/1.73 m2. Only 78/1741 (4 %) had no comorbidities, 453/1741 (26 %) had one, 508/1741 (29 %) had two and 702/1741 (40 %) had >2. Hypertension was common (88 %), 30 % had ‘painful condition’, 24 % anemia, 23 %, ischaemic heart disease, 17 % diabetes and 12 % thyroid disorders. Median medication use was 5 medications (interquartile range 3–8) and increased with degree of comorbidity. Greater treatment burden and multimorbidity were independently associated with age, smoking, increasing body mass index and decreasing eGFR. Treatment burden was also independently associated with lower education status. After median 3.6 years follow-up, 175/1741 (10 %) died. Greater multimorbidity was independently associated with mortality (hazard ratio 2.81 (95 % confidence intervals 1.72–4.58), p < 0.001) for 3 or more comorbidities vs 0 or 1). Conclusions Isolated CKD was rare and multimorbidity the norm in this cohort of people with moderate CKD. Increasing multimorbidity was associated with greater medication burden and poorer survival. CKD management should include consideration of comorbidities.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                October 2020
                18 August 2020
                : 144
                : 10
                : 479-487
                aPortuguese Society of Nephrology, Lisbon, Portugal
                bPortuguese Society of Diabetology, Lisbon, Portugal
                cAPDP – Diabetes Portugal and Nova Medical School, Lisbon, Portugal
                dAssociação Portuguesa de Medicina Geral e Familiar, Lisbon, Portugal
                Author notes
                *José Vinhas, Portuguese Society of Nephrology, Largo do Campo Pequeno no. 2, 2A, PT–1000-078 Lisbon (Portugal),
                508678 Nephron 2020;144:479–487
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, Pages: 9
                Clinical Practice: Research Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                RENA, Chronic kidney disease, Prevalence


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