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      Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Fruit Extracts of Myristica fragrans: Their Characterizations and Biological and Environmental Applications

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          Abstract

          In the present work, bioaugmented zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were prepared from aqueous fruit extracts of Myristica fragrans . The ZnO-NPs were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The crystallites exhibited a mean size of 41.23 nm measured via XRD and were highly pure, while SEM and TEM analyses of synthesized NPs confirmed their spherical or elliptical shape. The functional groups responsible for stabilizing and capping of ZnO-NPs were confirmed using FTIR analysis. The ζ-size and ζ-potential of synthesized ZnO-NPs were reported as 66 nm and −22.1 mV, respectively, via the DLS technique can be considered as moderate stable colloidal solution. Synthesized NPs were used to evaluate for their possible antibacterial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antiparasitic, and larvicidal properties. The NPs were found to be highly active against bacterial strains both coated with antibiotics and alone. Klebsiella pneumoniae was found to be the most sensitive strain against NPs (27 ± 1.73) and against NPs coated with imipinem (26 ± 1.5). ZnO-NPs displayed outstanding inhibitory potential against enzymes protein kinase (12.23 ± 0.42), α-amylase (73.23 ± 0.42), and α-glucosidase (65.21 ± 0.49). Overall, the synthesized NPs have shown significant larvicidal activity (77.3 ± 1.8) against Aedes aegypti, the mosquitoes involved in the transmission of dengue fever. Similarly, tremendous leishmanicidal activity was also observed against both the promastigote (71.50 ± 0.70) and amastigote (61.41 ± 0.71) forms of the parasite. The biosynthesized NPs were found to be excellent antioxidant and biocompatible nanomaterials. Biosynthesized ZnO-NPs were also used as photocatalytic agents, resulting in 88% degradation of methylene blue dye in 140 min. Owing to their eco-friendly synthesis, nontoxicity, and biocompatible nature, ZnO-NPs synthesized from M. fragrans can be exploited as potential candidates for biomedical and environmental applications.

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          Bad bugs, no drugs: no ESKAPE! An update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

          The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to view with concern the lean pipeline for novel therapeutics to treat drug-resistant infections, especially those caused by gram-negative pathogens. Infections now occur that are resistant to all current antibacterial options. Although the IDSA is encouraged by the prospect of success for some agents currently in preclinical development, there is an urgent, immediate need for new agents with activity against these panresistant organisms. There is no evidence that this need will be met in the foreseeable future. Furthermore, we remain concerned that the infrastructure for discovering and developing new antibacterials continues to stagnate, thereby risking the future pipeline of antibacterial drugs. The IDSA proposed solutions in its 2004 policy report, "Bad Bugs, No Drugs: As Antibiotic R&D Stagnates, a Public Health Crisis Brews," and recently issued a "Call to Action" to provide an update on the scope of the problem and the proposed solutions. A primary objective of these periodic reports is to encourage a community and legislative response to establish greater financial parity between the antimicrobial development and the development of other drugs. Although recent actions of the Food and Drug Administration and the 110th US Congress present a glimmer of hope, significant uncertainly remains. Now, more than ever, it is essential to create a robust and sustainable antibacterial research and development infrastructure--one that can respond to current antibacterial resistance now and anticipate evolving resistance. This challenge requires that industry, academia, the National Institutes of Health, the Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Department of Defense, and the new Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority at the Department of Health and Human Services work productively together. This report provides an update on potentially effective antibacterial drugs in the late-stage development pipeline, in the hope of encouraging such collaborative action.
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            Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants

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              NANOMATERIALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: BEHAVIOR, FATE, BIOAVAILABILITY, AND EFFECTS

              The recent advances in nanotechnology and the corresponding increase in the use of nanomaterials in products in every sector of society have resulted in uncertainties regarding environmental impacts. The objectives of this review are to introduce the key aspects pertaining to nanomaterials in the environment and to discuss what is known concerning their fate, behavior, disposition, and toxicity, with a particular focus on those that make up manufactured nanomaterials. This review critiques existing nanomaterial research in freshwater, marine, and soil environments. It illustrates the paucity of existing research and demonstrates the need for additional research. Environmental scientists are encouraged to base this research on existing studies on colloidal behavior and toxicology. The need for standard reference and testing materials as well as methodology for suspension preparation and testing is also discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ACS Omega
                ACS Omega
                ao
                acsodf
                ACS Omega
                American Chemical Society
                2470-1343
                30 March 2021
                13 April 2021
                : 6
                : 14
                : 9709-9722
                Affiliations
                []Department of Biotechnology, Bacha Khan University , Charsadda 24460,KPK, Pakistan
                []Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University , Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
                [§ ]Department of Botany, Bacha Khan University , Charsadda 24460, KPK, Pakistan
                []Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar , Peshawar 25120, KPK, Pakistan
                []Department of Microbiology, Abdul Wali Khan University , Mardan 23200, KPK, Pakistan
                [# ]Center for Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Swat , Mingora 19130,KPK, Pakistan
                []Programmatic Management of Drug Resistant T.B. Unit, Ayub Teaching Hospital , Abbotabad 22040, Pakistan
                []Department of Chemistry, Bacha Khan University , Charsadda 24460, KPK, Pakistan
                []Department of Microbiology, Khyber Medical University , Peshawar 25100, KPK, Pakistan
                []Department of Bioinformatics, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University , Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan
                Author notes
                Article
                10.1021/acsomega.1c00310
                8047667
                33869951
                750bbe59-ad3b-4071-8661-c27d13950cc5
                © 2021 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society

                Permits non-commercial access and re-use, provided that author attribution and integrity are maintained; but does not permit creation of adaptations or other derivative works ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 18 January 2021
                : 15 March 2021
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