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Biomass derived solvents for the scalable production of single layered graphene from graphite

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      Abstract

      Levulinic acid, a biomass derived green and sustainable solvent, was found to exfoliate graphite to single and few layered graphene.

      Abstract

      Among four different biomass derived green and sustainable solvents namely levulinic acid (LA), ethyl lactate (EL), γ-valerolactone (GVL) and formic acid (FA) only LA was found to exfoliate graphite to single and few layered graphene sheets. During exfoliation, the formation of LA crystals embedded with single layered graphene sheets was observed. The process is scalable and the solvent can be recovered and reused in five subsequent cycles of exfoliation for the large scale production of graphene sheets.

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      The rise of graphene

      Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.
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        Two-Dimensional Gas of Massless Dirac Fermions in Graphene

        Electronic properties of materials are commonly described by quasiparticles that behave as non-relativistic electrons with a finite mass and obey the Schroedinger equation. Here we report a condensed matter system where electron transport is essentially governed by the Dirac equation and charge carriers mimic relativistic particles with zero mass and an effective "speed of light" c* ~10^6m/s. Our studies of graphene - a single atomic layer of carbon - have revealed a variety of unusual phenomena characteristic of two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermions. In particular, we have observed that a) the integer quantum Hall effect in graphene is anomalous in that it occurs at half-integer filling factors; b) graphene's conductivity never falls below a minimum value corresponding to the conductance quantum e^2/h, even when carrier concentrations tend to zero; c) the cyclotron mass m of massless carriers with energy E in graphene is described by equation E =mc*^2; and d) Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in graphene exhibit a phase shift of pi due to Berry's phase.
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          The Raman Fingerprint of Graphene

          Graphene is the two-dimensional (2d) building block for carbon allotropes of every other dimensionality. It can be stacked into 3d graphite, rolled into 1d nanotubes, or wrapped into 0d fullerenes. Its recent discovery in free state has finally provided the possibility to study experimentally its electronic and phonon properties. Here we show that graphene's electronic structure is uniquely captured in its Raman spectrum that clearly evolves with increasing number of layers. Raman fingerprints for single-, bi- and few-layer graphene reflect changes in the electronic structure and electron-phonon interactions and allow unambiguous, high-throughput, non-destructive identification of graphene layers, which is critically lacking in this emerging research area.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            CHCOFS
            Chemical Communications
            Chem. Commun.
            Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
            1359-7345
            1364-548X
            2016
            2016
            : 52
            : 58
            : 9074-9077
            10.1039/C6CC00256K
            © 2016
            Product
            Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C6CC00256K

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