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      A comparative life cycle assessment of diesel and compressed natural gas powered refuse collection vehicles in a Canadian city

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      Energy Policy

      Elsevier BV

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          Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases

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            Life-cycle assessment of fuel cell stacks

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              Life cycle assessment of automobile/fuel options.

              We examine the possibilities for a "greener" car that would use less material and fuel, be less polluting, and would have a well-managed end-of-life. Light-duty vehicles are fundamental to our economy and will continue to be for the indefinite future. Any redesign to make these vehicles greener requires consumer acceptance. Consumer desires for large, powerful vehicles have been the major stumbling block in achieving a "green car". The other major barrier is inherent contradictions among social goals such as fuel economy, safety, low emissions of pollutants, and low emissions of greenhouse gases, which has led to conflicting regulations such as emissions regulations blocking sales of direct injection diesels in California, which would save fuel. In evaluating fuel/vehicle options with the potential to improve the greenness of cars [diesel (direct injection) and ethanol in internal combustion engines, battery-powered, gasoline hybrid electric, and hydrogen fuel cells], we find no option dominates the others on all dimensions. The principles of green design developed by Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 94A-101A) and the use of a life cycle approach provide insights on the key sustainability issues associated with the various options.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Energy Policy
                Energy Policy
                Elsevier BV
                03014215
                January 2013
                January 2013
                : 52
                :
                : 453-461
                Article
                10.1016/j.enpol.2012.09.064
                © 2013

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