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      Strategies for Preparing Albumin-based Nanoparticles for Multifunctional Bioimaging and Drug Delivery

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          Abstract

          Biosafety is the primary concern in clinical translation of nanomedicine. As an intrinsic ingredient of human blood without immunogenicity and encouraged by its successful clinical application in Abraxane, albumin has been regarded as a promising material to produce nanoparticles for bioimaging and drug delivery. The strategies for synthesizing albumin-based nanoparticles could be generally categorized into five classes: template, nanocarrier, scaffold, stabilizer and albumin-polymer conjugate. This review introduces approaches utilizing albumin in the preparation of nanoparticles and thereby provides scientists with knowledge of goal-driven design on albumin-based nanomedicine.

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          Most cited references 236

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          Albumin as a drug carrier: design of prodrugs, drug conjugates and nanoparticles.

           Felix Kratz (2008)
          Albumin is playing an increasing role as a drug carrier in the clinical setting. Principally, three drug delivery technologies can be distinguished: coupling of low-molecular weight drugs to exogenous or endogenous albumin, conjugation with bioactive proteins and encapsulation of drugs into albumin nanoparticles. The accumulation of albumin in solid tumors forms the rationale for developing albumin-based drug delivery systems for tumor targeting. Clinically, a methotrexate-albumin conjugate, an albumin-binding prodrug of doxorubicin, i.e. the (6-maleimido)caproylhydrazone derivative of doxorubicin (DOXO-EMCH), and an albumin paclitaxel nanoparticle (Abraxane) have been evaluated clinically. Abraxane has been approved for treating metastatic breast cancer. An alternative strategy is to bind a therapeutic peptide or protein covalently or physically to albumin to enhance its stability and half-life. This approach has been applied to peptides with antinociceptive, antidiabetes, antitumor or antiviral activity: Levemir, a myristic acid derivative of insulin that binds to the fatty acid binding sites of circulating albumin, has been approved for the treatment of diabetes. Furthermore, Albuferon, a fusion protein of albumin and interferon, is currently being assessed in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of hepatitis C and could become an alternative to pegylated interferon. This review gives an account of the different drug delivery systems which make use of albumin as a drug carrier with a focus on those systems that have reached an advanced stage of preclinical evaluation or that have entered clinical trials.
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            Protein-directed synthesis of highly fluorescent gold nanoclusters.

            A simple, one-pot, "green" synthetic route, based on the "biomineralization" capability of a common commercially available protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), has been developed for the preparation of highly stable Au nanocrystals (NCs) with red emission and high quantum yield.
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              Albumin-based nanoparticles as potential controlled release drug delivery systems.

              Albumin, a versatile protein carrier for drug delivery, has been shown to be nontoxic, non-immunogenic, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, it is ideal material to fabricate nanoparticles for drug delivery. Albumin nanoparticles have gained considerable attention owing to their high binding capacity of various drugs and being well tolerated without any serious side-effects. The current review embodies an in-depth discussion of albumin nanoparticles with respect to types, formulation aspects, major outcomes of in vitro and in vivo investigations as well as site-specific drug targeting using various ligands modifying the surface of albumin nanoparticles with special insights to the field of oncology. Specialized nanotechnological techniques like desolvation, emulsification, thermal gelation and recently nano-spray drying, nab-technology and self-assembly that have been investigated for fabrication of albumin nanoparticles, are also discussed. Nanocomplexes of albumin with other components in the area of drug delivery are also included in this review. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Theranostics
                Theranostics
                thno
                Theranostics
                Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney )
                1838-7640
                2017
                23 August 2017
                : 7
                : 15
                : 3667-3689
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Carbon-based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123, P.R. China;
                [2 ]Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Innovations Institute (MI3), Weill Cornell Medicine, 413 E 69th St, New York, NY, 10065.
                Author notes
                ✉ Corresponding author: E-mail: xiaohong_zhang@ 123456suda.edu.cn

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

                Article
                thnov07p3667
                10.7150/thno.19365
                5667340
                © Ivyspring International Publisher

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular medicine

                albumin, nanoparticle, drug delivery, bioimaging, theranostics, multifunctional.

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