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      Decline in the AIDS and death rates in the EuroSIDA study: an observational study

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      The Lancet

      Elsevier BV

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          Most cited references 28

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          Declining Morbidity and Mortality among Patients with Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

          National surveillance data show recent, marked reductions in morbidity and mortality associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). To evaluate these declines, we analyzed data on 1255 patients, each of whom had at least one CD4+ count below 100 cells per cubic millimeter, who were seen at nine clinics specializing in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in eight U.S. cities from January 1994 through June 1997. Mortality among the patients declined from 29.4 per 100 person-years in the first quarter of 1995 to 8.8 per 100 in the second quarter of 1997. There were reductions in mortality regardless of sex, race, age, and risk factors for transmission of HIV. The incidence of any of three major opportunistic infections (Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium complex disease, and cytomegalovirus retinitis) declined from 21.9 per 100 person-years in 1994 to 3.7 per 100 person-years by mid-1997. In a failure-rate model, increases in the intensity of antiretroviral therapy (classified as none, monotherapy, combination therapy without a protease inhibitor, and combination therapy with a protease inhibitor) were associated with stepwise reductions in morbidity and mortality. Combination antiretroviral therapy was associated with the most benefit; the inclusion of protease inhibitors in such regimens conferred additional benefit. Patients with private insurance were more often prescribed protease inhibitors and had lower mortality rates than those insured by Medicare or Medicaid. The recent declines in morbidity and mortality due to AIDS are attributable to the use of more intensive antiretroviral therapies.
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            Improved survival among HIV-infected individuals following initiation of antiretroviral therapy.

            Clinical trials have established the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy with double- and triple-drug regimens for individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the effectiveness of these regimens in the population of patients not enrolled in clinical trials is unknown. To characterize survival following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected individuals in the province of British Columbia. Prospective, population-based cohort study of patients with antiretroviral therapy available free of charge (median follow-up, 21 months). Province of British Columbia, Canada. All HIV-positive men and women 18 years of age or older in the province who were first prescribed any antiretroviral therapy between October 1992 and June 1996 and whose CD4+ cell counts were less than 0.350 x 10(9)/L. Rates of progression from initiation of antiretroviral therapy to death or a primary acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) diagnosis for subjects who initially received zidovudine-, didanosine-, or zalcitabine-based therapy (ERA-I) and for those who initially received therapy regimens including lamivudine or stavudine (ERA-II). A total of 1178 patients (951 ERA-I, 227 ERA-II) were eligible. A total of 390 patients died (367 ERA-I, 23 ERA-II), yielding a crude mortality rate of 33.1%. ERA-I group subjects were almost twice as likely to die as ERA-II group subjects, with a mortality risk ratio of 1.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 -2.86; P=.005). After adjusting for Pneumocystis carinii and Mycobacterium avium prophylaxis use, AIDS diagnosis, CD4+ cell count, sex, and age, ERA-I participants were 1.93 times (95% CI, 1.25-2.97; P=.003) more likely to die than ERA-II participants. Among patients without AIDS when treatment was started, ERA-I participants were 2.50 times (95% CI, 1.59-3.93; P<.001) more likely to progress to AIDS or death than ERA-II participants. The HIV-infected individuals who received initial therapy with regimens including stavudine or lamivudine had significantly lower mortality and longer AIDS-free survival than those who received initial therapy with regimens limited to zidovudine, didanosine, and zalcitabine.
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              Prognosis of HIV-1-infected patients starting highly active antiretroviral therapy: a collaborative analysis of prospective studies

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Lancet
                The Lancet
                Elsevier BV
                01406736
                July 2003
                July 2003
                : 362
                : 9377
                : 22-29
                Article
                10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13802-0
                © 2003

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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