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      Soluble common gamma chain exacerbates COPD progress through the regulation of inflammatory T cell response in mice

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          Abstract

          Cigarette smoking (CS) is a major cause of considerable morbidity and mortality by inducing lung cancer and COPD. COPD, a smoking-related disorder, is closely related to the alteration of immune system and inflammatory processes that are specifically mediated by T cells. Soluble common gamma chain (sγc) has recently been identified as a critical regulator of the development and differentiation of T cells. We examined the effects of sγc in a cigarette smoke extract (CSE) mouse model. The sγc level in CSE mice serum is significantly downregulated, and the cellularity of lymph node (LN) is systemically reduced in the CSE group. Overexpression of sγc enhances the cellularity and IFNγ production of CD8 T cells in LN and also enhances Th1 and Th17 differentiation of CD4 T cells in the respiratory tract. Mechanistically, the downregulation of sγc expression mediated by CSE is required to prevent excessive inflammatory T cell responses. Therefore, our data suggest that sγc may be one of the target molecules for the control of immunopathogenic progresses in COPD.

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          Most cited references 42

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          A function for interleukin 2 in Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells.

          Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) expressing the forkhead family transcription factor Foxp3 are critical mediators of dominant immune tolerance to self. Most T(reg) cells constitutively express the high-affinity interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor alpha-chain (CD25); however, the precise function of IL-2 in T(reg) cell biology has remained controversial. To directly assess the effect of IL-2 signaling on T(reg) cell development and function, we analyzed mice containing the Foxp3(gfp) knock-in allele that were genetically deficient in either IL-2 (Il2(-/-)) or CD25 (Il2ra(-/-)). We found that IL-2 signaling was dispensable for the induction of Foxp3 expression in thymocytes from these mice, which indicated that IL-2 signaling does not have a nonredundant function in the development of T(reg) cells. Unexpectedly, Il2(-/-) and Il2ra(-/-) T(reg) cells were fully able to suppress T cell proliferation in vitro. In contrast, Foxp3 was not expressed in thymocytes or peripheral T cells from Il2rg(-/-) mice. Gene expression analysis showed that IL-2 signaling was required for maintenance of the expression of genes involved in the regulation of cell growth and metabolism. Thus, IL-2 signaling seems to be critically required for maintaining the homeostasis and competitive fitness of T(reg) cells in vivo.
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            Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by CD25+CD4+ naturally anergic and suppressive T cells: induction of autoimmune disease by breaking their anergic/suppressive state.

            Elimination of CD25+ T cells, which constitute 5-10% of peripheral CD4+ T cells in normal naive mice, leads to spontaneous development of various autoimmune diseases. These immunoregulatory CD25+CD4+ T cells are naturally unresponsive (anergic) in vitro to TCR stimulation, and, upon stimulation, suppress proliferation of CD25-CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. The antigen concentration required for stimulating CD25+CD4+ T cells to exert suppression is much lower than that required for stimulating CD25-CD4+ T cells to proliferate. The suppression, which results in reduced IL-2 production by CD25-CD4+ T cells, is dependent on cellular interactions on antigen-presenting cells (and not mediated by far-reaching or long-lasting humoral factors or apoptosis-inducing signals) and antigen non-specific in its effector phase. Addition of high doses of IL-2 or anti-CD28 antibody to the in vitro T cell stimulation culture not only breaks the anergic state of CD25+CD4+ T cells, but also abrogates their suppressive activity simultaneously. Importantly, the anergic/suppressive state of CD25+CD4+ T cells appeared to be their basal default condition, since removal of IL-2 or anti-CD28 antibody from the culture milieu allows them to revert to the original anergic/suppressive state. Furthermore, transfer of such anergy/suppression-broken T cells from normal mice produces various autoimmune diseases in syngeneic athymic nude mice. These results taken together indicate that one aspect of immunologic self-tolerance is maintained by this unique CD25+CD4+ naturally anergic/suppressive T cell population and its functional abnormality directly leads to the development of autoimmune disease.
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              Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

               Chris Barnes (2000)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2017
                08 March 2017
                : 12
                : 817-827
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Pusan National University School of Medicine
                [2 ]Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan
                [3 ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan, South Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Myungsoo Joo, Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Rm 411, 49 Busandaehak-ro, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do, 50612, South Korea, Tel +82 10 5590 6211, Fax +82 51 510 8420, Email mjoo@ 123456pusan.ac.kr
                Changwan Hong, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, 49 Busandaehak-ro, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do, 50612, South Korea, Tel +82 51 510 8041, Fax +82 51 510 8049, Email chong@ 123456pusan.ac.kr
                Article
                copd-12-817
                10.2147/COPD.S123405
                5352154
                © 2017 Lee et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                copd, t cell, soluble common gamma chain, cytokine

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