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Conical Wave Propagation and Diffraction in 2D Hexagonally Packed Granular Lattices

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      Abstract

      Linear and nonlinear mechanisms for conical wave propagation in two-dimensional lattices are explored in the realm of phononic crystals. As a prototypical example, a statically compressed granular lattice of spherical particles arranged in a hexagonal packing configuration is analyzed. Upon identifying the dispersion relation of the underlying linear problem, the resulting diffraction properties are considered. Analysis both via a heuristic argument for the linear propagation of a wavepacket, as well as via asymptotic analysis leading to the derivation of a Dirac system suggests the occurrence of conical diffraction. This analysis is valid for strong precompression i.e., near the linear regime. For weak precompression, conical wave propagation is still possible, but the resulting expanding circular wave front is of a non-oscillatory nature, resulting from the complex interplay between the discreteness, nonlinearity and geometry of the packing. The transition between these two types of propagation is explored.

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      Solitary waves in the granular chain

       S. Sen,  J J Hong,  J. Bang (2008)
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        Generation of Sound Bullets with a Nonlinear Acoustic Lens

        Acoustic lenses are employed in a variety of applications, from biomedical imaging and surgery, to defense systems, but their performance is limited by their linear operational envelope and complexity. Here we show a dramatic focusing effect and the generation of large amplitude, compact acoustic pulses (sound bullets) in solid and fluid media, enabled by a tunable, highly nonlinear acoustic lens. The lens consists of ordered arrays of granular chains. The amplitude, size and location of the sound bullets can be controlled by varying static pre-compression on the chains. We support our findings with theory, numerical simulations, and corroborate the results experimentally with photoelasticity measurements. Our nonlinear lens makes possible a qualitatively new way of generating high-energy acoustic pulses, enabling, for example, surgical control of acoustic energy.
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          DEM simulations and experiments for projectile impacting two-dimensional particle packings including dissimilar material layers

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            10.1103/PhysRevE.93.012909
            1510.03674

            Nonlinear & Complex systems

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