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      Rotational Molding of Linear Low-Density Polyethylene Composites Filled with Wheat Bran

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          Abstract

          Application of lignocellulosic fillers in the manufacturing of wood polymer composites (WPCs) is a very popular trend of research, however it is still rarely observed in the case of rotational molding. The present study aimed to analyze the impact of wheat bran content (from 2.5 wt.% to 20 wt.%) on the performance of rotationally-molded composites based on a linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) matrix. Microscopic structure (scanning electron microscopy), as well as physico-mechanical (density, porosity, tensile performance, hardness, rebound resilience, dynamic mechanical analysis), rheological (oscillatory rheometry) and thermo-mechanical (Vicat softening temperature) properties of composites were investigated. Incorporation of 2.5 wt.% and 5 wt.% of wheat bran did not cause significant deterioration of the mechanical performance of the material, despite the presence of ‘pin-holes’ at the surface. Values of tensile strength and rebound resilience were maintained at a very similar level, while hardness was slightly decreased, which was associated with the porosity of the structure. Higher loadings resulted in the deterioration of mechanical performance, which was also expressed by the noticeable rise of the adhesion factor. For lower loadings of filler did not affect the rheological properties. However, composites with 10wt.% and 20 wt.% also showed behavior suitable for rotational molding. The presented results indicate that the manufacturing of thin-walled products based on wood polymer composites via rotational molding should be considered a very interesting direction of research.

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          Composition and functionality of wheat bran and its application in some cereal food products

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            Characterization of interfacial interactions in high density polyethylene filled with glass spheres using dynamic-mechanical analysis

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              Grain hardness: a major determinant of wheat quality.

              Wheat quality, a complex term, depends upon intentional use for unambiguous products. The foremost determinants of wheat quality are endosperm texture (grain hardness), protein content and gluten strength. Endosperm texture in wheat is the single most important and defining quality characteristic, as it facilitates wheat classification and affects milling, baking and end-use quality. Various techniques used for grain hardness measurement are classified into diverse groups according to grinding, crushing and abrasion. The most extensively used methods for texture measurement are PSI, NIR hardness, SKCS, pearling index, SDS-PAGE and PCR markers. Friabilin is a 15 kDa endosperm specific protein associated with starch granules of wheat grain and is unswervingly related to grain softness. Chemically, it is a concoction of different polypeptides, primarily puroindolines; Pin a and Pin b. Hardness (Ha) locus of chromosome 5DS makes the distinction between soft and hard classes of wheat. Some additional modifying genes are also present which contribute to the disparity within wheat classes. Numerous allelic mutations in Pin have been reported and their relation to end product quality has been established. This treatise elaborates the consequence of grain hardness in wheat eminence.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Polymers (Basel)
                Polymers (Basel)
                polymers
                Polymers
                MDPI
                2073-4360
                26 April 2020
                May 2020
                : 12
                : 5
                : 1004
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Polymer Technology, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland; paulina.kosmela@ 123456pg.edu.pl
                [2 ]Institute of Materials Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 61-138 Poznań, Poland; mateusz.barczewski@ 123456put.poznan.pl (M.B.); jacek.andrzejewski@ 123456put.poznan.pl (J.A.); marek.szostak@ 123456put.poznan.pl (M.S.)
                [3 ]Institute of Materials Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Jana Pawła II 24, 60-965 Poznań, Poland; adam.piasecki@ 123456put.poznan.pl
                [4 ]College of Material Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China; kuangtr@ 123456zjut.edu.cn
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: aleksander.hejna@ 123456pg.edu.pl ; Tel.: +48-58-347-2234
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9125-6164
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1451-6430
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7459-0128
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1019-633X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5822-3931
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4009-1720
                Article
                polymers-12-01004
                10.3390/polym12051004
                7284687
                32357542
                752f0c3e-557a-4249-90dc-46753ed63370
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 16 March 2020
                : 24 April 2020
                Categories
                Article

                rotational molding,polyethylene,wheat bran,waste management,wood polymer composites,recycling

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