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      The N-terminus of Paenibacillus larvae C3larvinA modulates catalytic efficiency


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          C3larvinA was recently described as a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (mART) toxin from the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) III genotype of the agricultural pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. It was shown to be the full-length, functional version of the previously described C3larvin trunc toxin, due to a 33-residue extension of the N-terminus of the protein. In the present study, a series of deletions and substitutions were made to the N-terminus of C3larvinA to assess the contribution of the α 1-helix to toxin structure and function. Catalytic characterization of these variants identified Asp 23 and Ala 31 residues as supportive to enzymatic function. A third residue, Lys 36, was also found to contribute to the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Analysis of the C3larvinA homology model revealed that these three residues were participating in a series of interactions to properly orient both the Q-X-E and S-T-S motifs. Ala 31 and Lys 36 were found to associate with a structural network of residues previously identified in silico, whereas Asp 23 forms novel interactions not previously described. At last, the membrane translocation activity into host target cells of each variant was assessed, highlighting a possible relationship between protein dipole and target cell entry.

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          The Phyre2 web portal for protein modeling, prediction and analysis.

          Phyre2 is a suite of tools available on the web to predict and analyze protein structure, function and mutations. The focus of Phyre2 is to provide biologists with a simple and intuitive interface to state-of-the-art protein bioinformatics tools. Phyre2 replaces Phyre, the original version of the server for which we previously published a paper in Nature Protocols. In this updated protocol, we describe Phyre2, which uses advanced remote homology detection methods to build 3D models, predict ligand binding sites and analyze the effect of amino acid variants (e.g., nonsynonymous SNPs (nsSNPs)) for a user's protein sequence. Users are guided through results by a simple interface at a level of detail they determine. This protocol will guide users from submitting a protein sequence to interpreting the secondary and tertiary structure of their models, their domain composition and model quality. A range of additional available tools is described to find a protein structure in a genome, to submit large number of sequences at once and to automatically run weekly searches for proteins that are difficult to model. The server is available at http://www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk/phyre2. A typical structure prediction will be returned between 30 min and 2 h after submission.
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            American Foulbrood in honeybees and its causative agent, Paenibacillus larvae.

            After more than a century of American Foulbrood (AFB) research, this fatal brood infection is still among the most deleterious bee diseases. Its etiological agent is the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Huge progress has been made, especially in the last 20 years, in the understanding of the disease and of the underlying host-pathogen interactions. This review will place these recent developments in the study of American Foulbrood and of P. larvae into the general context of AFB research. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              A historical review of managed honey bee populations in Europe and the United States and the factors that may affect them.

              Honey bees are a highly valued resource around the world. They are prized for their honey and wax production and depended upon for pollination of many important crops. While globally honey bee populations have been increasing, the rate of increase is not keeping pace with demand. Further, honey bee populations have not been increasing in all parts of the world, and have declined in many nations in Europe and in North America. Managed honey bee populations are influenced by many factors including diseases, parasites, pesticides, the environment, and socio-economic factors. These factors can act alone or in combination with each other. This review highlights the present day value of honey bees, followed by a detailed description of some of the historical and present day factors that influence honey bee populations, with particular emphasis on colony populations in Europe and the United States. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Biosci Rep
                Biosci Rep
                Bioscience Reports
                Portland Press Ltd.
                29 January 2021
                06 January 2021
                : 41
                : 1
                : BSR20203727
                [1 ]Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada
                [2 ]Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 0B1, Canada
                Author notes
                Correspondence: A. Rod Merrill ( rmerrill@ 123456uoguelph.ca )
                Author information
                © 2021 The Author(s).

                This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the .

                : 26 October 2020
                : 07 December 2020
                : 08 December 2020
                : 08 December 2020
                Page count
                Pages: 16
                Host-Microbe Interactions
                Molecular Interactions
                Structural Biology
                Research Articles

                Life sciences
                adp-ribosyltransferase toxins,enzyme mechanisms,honey bee diseases,macrophage cell entry,protein-protein interactions


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