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      Fraction n-Butanol of Radix Notoginseng Protects PC12 Cells from Aβ25–35-Induced Cytotoxicity and Alleviates Cognitive Deficits in SAMP8 Mice by Attenuating Oxidative Stress and Aβ Accumulation

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          Chinese medicine has been used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment for thousands of years with more effective and fewer side effects. Therefore, developing effective potential candidates from Chinese medicine against AD would be considered as critical and efficient therapy for AD treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the neuronal protective effect of fraction n-butanol (NB) of Radix Notoginseng on A β 25–35-induced PC12 cells, explore the effect of the tested fraction on spatial learning and memory, and characterize the impacts of fraction NB on antioxidant enzymes, A β production, and APP and BACE1 expressions. The results revealed that fraction NB could promote proliferation of PC12 cells and protect and rescue PC12 cells from A β 25–35-induced cell death. Moreover, fraction NB could improve spatial learning and memory impairments of senescence-accelerated prone8 (SAMP8) mice and attenuate oxidative stress and reduce the production of A β by inhibiting the expressions of APP and BACE1 in the brains of SAMP8 mice. The result of single dose acute toxicity assay showed that fraction NB had a mild toxicity in vivo. The pronounced actions against AD and in vivo low toxicity of fraction NB suggest that fraction NB may be a useful alternative to the current AD treatment.

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          Developments of an open-field water-maze procedure in which rats learn to escape from opaque water onto a hidden platform are described. These include a procedure (A) for automatically tracking the spatial location of a hooded rat without the use of attached light-emitting diodes; (B) for studying different aspects of spatial memory (e.g. working memory); and (C) for studying non-spatial discrimination learning. The speed with which rats learn these tasks suggests that they may lend themselves to a variety of behavioural investigations, including pharmacological work and studies of cerebral function.
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                Author and article information

                1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Pharmacy School, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221004, China
                2Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy School, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221004, China
                3Department of Pharmacy, Liuzhou Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital, Liuzhou, Guangxi 545001, China
                4Scientific Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning, Guangxi 530200, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Krishnadas Nandakumar

                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                3 October 2017
                : 2017
                Copyright © 2017 Jin-Lan Huang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81460598
                Award ID: 81660644
                Funded by: Xuzhou Medical University
                Award ID: D2014017
                Award ID: D2014010
                Funded by: Opening Foundation of Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Anesthesiology
                Award ID: KJS1404
                Funded by: Director Fund of Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy
                Award ID: ZR-XY201402
                Research Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine


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