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Identification of Potential Sources of Mercury (Hg) in Farmland Soil Using a Decision Tree Method in China

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      Abstract

      Identification of the sources of soil mercury (Hg) on the provincial scale is helpful for enacting effective policies to prevent further contamination and take reclamation measurements. The natural and anthropogenic sources and their contributions of Hg in Chinese farmland soil were identified based on a decision tree method. The results showed that the concentrations of Hg in parent materials were most strongly associated with the general spatial distribution pattern of Hg concentration on a provincial scale. The decision tree analysis gained an 89.70% total accuracy in simulating the influence of human activities on the additions of Hg in farmland soil. Human activities—for example, the production of coke, application of fertilizers, discharge of wastewater, discharge of solid waste, and the production of non-ferrous metals—were the main external sources of a large amount of Hg in the farmland soil.

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      CLASSIFICATION AND REGRESSION TREES: A POWERFUL YET SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR ECOLOGICAL DATA ANALYSIS

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        A multiscale modeling system that consists of a global chemical transport model (CTM) and a nested continental CTM was used to simulate the global atmospheric fate and transport of mercury and its deposition over the contiguous United States. The performance of the CTMs was evaluated against available data. The coefficient of determination (r2) for observed versus simulated annual mercury wet deposition fluxes over North America was 0.50 with average normalized error and bias of 25% and 11%, respectively. The CTMs were used to conduct a global source attribution for selected receptor areas. Three global emission scenarios were used that differed in their distribution of background emissions among direct natural emissions and re-emissions of natural and anthropogenic mercury. North American anthropogenic sources were calculated to contribute only from 25 to 32% to the total mercury deposition over the continental United States. At selected receptors, the contribution of North American anthropogenic emissions ranges from 9 to 81%; Asian anthropogenic emissions were calculated to contribute from 5 to 36%; natural emissions were calculated to contribute from 6 to 59%.
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          Multiple Criteria for Evaluating Machine Learning Algorithms for Land Cover Classification from Satellite Data

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Road, Nanjing 210023, China; taiyangzhong@ 123456163.com
            [2 ]Department of Geography and Planning, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada; chendm@ 123456queensu.edu
            [3 ]Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science and Technology, International Institute for Earth System Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
            [4 ]Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: lzhxy77@ 123456163.com ; Tel./Fax: +86-25-8968-0372
            Contributors
            Role: Academic Editor
            Journal
            Int J Environ Res Public Health
            Int J Environ Res Public Health
            ijerph
            International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
            MDPI
            1661-7827
            1660-4601
            09 November 2016
            November 2016
            : 13
            : 11
            27834884
            5129321
            10.3390/ijerph13111111
            ijerph-13-01111
            (Academic Editor)
            © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

            This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

            Categories
            Article

            Public health

            china, sources of hg concentrations, farmland soil, decision tree

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