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      Co-occupancy by multiple cardiac transcription factors identifies transcriptional enhancers active in heart.

      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

      Animals, Cell Line, Chromatin, metabolism, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Computational Biology, DNA Primers, genetics, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay, Enhancer Elements, Genetic, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental, physiology, Heart, embryology, Linear Models, Mice, Myocardium, Transcription Factors

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          Abstract

          Identification of genomic regions that control tissue-specific gene expression is currently problematic. ChIP and high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) of enhancer-associated proteins such as p300 identifies some but not all enhancers active in a tissue. Here we show that co-occupancy of a chromatin region by multiple transcription factors (TFs) identifies a distinct set of enhancers. GATA-binding protein 4 (GATA4), NK2 transcription factor-related, locus 5 (NKX2-5), T-box 5 (TBX5), serum response factor (SRF), and myocyte-enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), here referred to as "cardiac TFs," have been hypothesized to collaborate to direct cardiac gene expression. Using a modified ChIP-seq procedure, we defined chromatin occupancy by these TFs and p300 genome wide and provided unbiased support for this hypothesis. We used this principle to show that co-occupancy of a chromatin region by multiple TFs can be used to identify cardiac enhancers. Of 13 such regions tested in transient transgenic embryos, seven (54%) drove cardiac gene expression. Among these regions were three cardiac-specific enhancers of Gata4, Srf, and swItch/sucrose nonfermentable-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 3 (Smarcd3), an epigenetic regulator of cardiac gene expression. Multiple cardiac TFs and p300-bound regions were associated with cardiac-enriched genes and with functional annotations related to heart development. Importantly, the large majority (1,375/1,715) of loci bound by multiple cardiac TFs did not overlap loci bound by p300. Our data identify thousands of prospective cardiac regulatory sequences and indicate that multiple TF co-occupancy of a genomic region identifies developmentally relevant enhancers that are largely distinct from p300-associated enhancers.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          21415370
          3078411
          10.1073/pnas.1016959108

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