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Global Review of Social Indicators used in Protected Area Management Evaluation : Global review of protected area indicators

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      REDISCOVERY OF TRADITIONAL ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AS ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT

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        Contributions of cultural services to the ecosystem services agenda.

        Cultural ecosystem services (ES) are consistently recognized but not yet adequately defined or integrated within the ES framework. A substantial body of models, methods, and data relevant to cultural services has been developed within the social and behavioral sciences before and outside of the ES approach. A selective review of work in landscape aesthetics, cultural heritage, outdoor recreation, and spiritual significance demonstrates opportunities for operationally defining cultural services in terms of socioecological models, consistent with the larger set of ES. Such models explicitly link ecological structures and functions with cultural values and benefits, facilitating communication between scientists and stakeholders and enabling economic, multicriterion, deliberative evaluation and other methods that can clarify tradeoffs and synergies involving cultural ES. Based on this approach, a common representation is offered that frames cultural services, along with all ES, by the relative contribution of relevant ecological structures and functions and by applicable social evaluation approaches. This perspective provides a foundation for merging ecological and social science epistemologies to define and integrate cultural services better within the broader ES framework.
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          Community-based conservation in a globalized world.

           F Berkes (2007)
          Communities have an important role to play in biodiversity conservation. However, community-based conservation as a panacea, like government-based conservation as a panacea, ignores the necessity of managing commons at multiple levels, with vertical and horizontal interplay among institutions. The study of conservation in a multilevel world can serve to inform an interdisciplinary science of conservation, consistent with the Convention on Biological Diversity, to establish partnerships and link biological conservation objectives with local development objectives. Improving the integration of conservation and development requires rethinking conservation by using a complexity perspective and the ability to deal with multiple objectives, use of partnerships and deliberative processes, and learning from commons research to develop diagnostic tools. Perceived this way, community-based conservation has a role to play in a broad pluralistic approach to biodiversity protection: it is governance that starts from the ground up and involves networks and linkages across various levels of organization. The shift of attention to processes at multiple levels fundamentally alters the way in which the governance of conservation development may be conceived and developed, using diagnostics within a pluralistic framework rather than a blueprint approach.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia; UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre; CB3 0DL Cambridge UK
            [2 ]CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO); Brisbane Queensland 4001 Australia
            [3 ]UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre, CB3 0DL, Cambridge, UK, Centre for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate; The Natural History Museum; Copenhagen 1350 Denmark
            [4 ]UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre; CB3 0DL Cambridge UK
            [5 ]School of Earth and Environmental Sciences; University of Queensland; Brisbane Queensland 4072 Australia
            Journal
            Conservation Letters
            CONSERVATION LETTERS
            Wiley
            1755263X
            March 2018
            March 2018
            August 30 2017
            : 11
            : 2
            : e12397
            10.1111/conl.12397
            © 2017

            http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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