The GNB3 C825T gene polymorphism has recently been identified and associated with hypertension, obesity and left ventricular hypertrophy. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the C825T polymorphism of the gene encoding for the G protein β3 subunit (GNB3 C825T) and vascular hypertrophy. We studied a cohort of 306 subjects (age 49 ± 12 years) without evidence of cardiovascular disease and never treated with cardiovascular drugs. Vascular phenotypes were evaluated for the common carotid and radial arteries using high-resolution echo-tracking devices. Genotype frequencies were in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. For the radial artery, mean wall thickness was significantly higher in subjects carrying the 825T allele than in CC genotype subjects (240 ± 54 µm for CT genotype and 241 ± 53 µm for TT genotype vs. 222 ± 52 µm for CC genotype, p = 0.01). The frequency of the 825T allele was significantly different in subjects with (52%) and without (35%) radial artery hypertrophy (χ<sup>2</sup> = 10.88, p < 0.001). The relative risk of radial artery hypertrophy in subjects carrying the 825T allele compared with those with the CC genotype was 3.02 (95% CI 1.53– 5.95). A logistic regression analysis indicated that the positive and significant association between the 825T allele and radial artery hypertrophy was independent of age, blood pressure, gender and BMI. In contrast, no association between genotypes and carotid artery wall thickening was observed. These results suggest that some genetic characteristics determine in part the patterns of radial artery geometrical changes. As the 825T allele is associated with vascular hypertrophy of a muscular artery but not with structural changes of an elastic artery, we hypothesize that the 825T allele may be a genetic marker of arteriolosclerosis.