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      A new species of hagfish, Eptatretus wandoensis sp. nov. (Agnatha, Myxinidae), from the southwestern Sea of Korea

      1 , , 1

      ZooKeys

      Pensoft Publishers

      mitochondrial DNA, morphology, myxinid, Myxiniformes , Northwest Pacific, taxonomy

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          Abstract

          Four specimens of the five-gilled white mid-dorsal line hagfish, Eptatretus wandoensis sp. nov. were recently collected from the southwestern Sea of Korea (Wando). This new species has five pairs of gill apertures, 14–18 prebranchial slime pores, 4 branchial slime pores, a dark brown back with a white mid-dorsal line and a white belly. These hagfish are similar to Eptatretus burgeri and Eptatretus minor in having a white mid-dorsal line, but can be readily distinguished by the numbers of gill apertures (5 vs. 6–7), gill pouches (5 vs. 6), and prebranchial slime pores (14–18 vs. > 18), as well as the body color (dark brown back vs. gray or brown pale). In terms of genetic differences, Eptatretus wandoensis could be clearly distinguished from E. burgeri (0.9% in 16S rRNA and 8.5% in cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences) and E. minor (4.5% and 13.9%).

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          Most cited references 28

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          Universal primer cocktails for fish DNA barcoding

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            Amphioxus mitochondrial DNA, chordate phylogeny, and the limits of inference based on comparisons of sequences.

            Analyses of both the nucleotide and amino acid sequences derived from all 13 mitochondrial protein-encoding genes (12,234 bp) of 19 metazoan species, including that of the lancelet Branchiostoma floridae ("amphioxus"), fail to yield the widely accepted phylogeny for chordates and, within chordates, for vertebrates. Given the breadth and the compelling nature of the data supporting that phylogeny, relationships supported by the mitochondrial sequence comparisons are almost certainly incorrect, despite their being supported by equally weighted parsimony, distance, and maximum-likelihood analyses. The incorrect groupings probably result in part from convergent base-compositional similarities among some of the taxa, similarities that are strong enough to overwhelm the historical signal. Comparisons among very distantly related taxa are likely to be particularly susceptible to such artifacts, because the historical signal is already greatly attenuated. Empirical results underscore the need for approaches to phylogenetic inference that go beyond simple site-by-site comparison of aligned sequences. This study and others indicate that, once a sequence sample of reasonable size has been obtained, accurate phylogenetic estimation may be better served by incorporating knowledge of molecular structures and processes into inference models and by seeking additional higher order characters embedded in those sequences, than by gathering ever larger sequence samples from the same organisms in he hope that the historical signal will eventually prevail.
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              Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Aulopus japonicus (Teleostei: Aulopiformes), a basal Eurypterygii: longer DNA sequences and higher-level relationships

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                13 April 2020
                : 926
                : 81-94
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Marine Biology, Pukyong National University, Busan, 48513, Korea Pukyong National University Busan South Korea
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jin-Koo Kim ( taengko@ 123456hanmail.net )

                Academic editor: M.E. Bichuette

                Article
                48745
                10.3897/zookeys.926.48745
                7170979
                Young Sun Song, Jin-Koo Kim

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries 501100003566 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100003566
                Categories
                Research Article
                Agnatha
                Chordata
                Myxinidae
                Myxiniformes
                Pisces
                Vertebrata
                Phylogeny
                Systematics
                Taxonomy
                Korea
                Pacific Ocean
                South Korea

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