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      Causes and characteristics of work-related eye injuries in western Turkey

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          To analyze descriptive data and characteristics of work-related eye injuries (WREI) admitted into the emergency department (ED) and obtain information to utilize in planning measures to prevent WREI.

          Materials and Methods:

          This prospective study recruited patients with WREI admitted to the center in the two-year study period. Only the casualties occurred at the workplace and while working constituted the sample. The data were collected via face-to-face contact in the ED.


          Males comprised the majority of the sample (95.3%, n = 778) and mean age of the patients was 28.1 ± 6.5 (range: 15-54) with the biggest percentage in between 25 and 34 years of age (46.2%, n = 377). Most patients were working in the metal and machinery sectors (66.4%, n = 542). Nearly half of the patients had less than 1 year of experience (50.4%, n = 411). The most common mechanism of WREI was noted to be exposures to welding light (26.9%, n = 219), followed by drilling/cutting injuries (21.1%, n = 172). “Carelessness” and “hurrying up” were the most commonly reported causes of WREIs among ‘worker-related causes’ (21.4% and 16.1%, respectively). Lack of protective measures ranked the highest among workplace-related causes (18.7%, n = 207).


          Programs to increase awareness on workplace safety and sound preventive strategies for both parties-employers and employees are to be pursued. Occupational safety efforts should include training on workplace eye safety and campaigns to raise knowledgeability on this disease among workers.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Characteristics and outcomes of work-related open globe injuries.

          To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of patients treated for open globe injuries sustained at work and to compare these results to patients injured outside of work. Retrospective chart review of 812 consecutive patients with open globe injuries treated at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between 1999 and 2008. A total of 146 patients with open globe injuries sustained at work were identified and their characteristics and outcomes were compared with the rest of the patients in the database. Of the patients injured at work, 98% were men, and the average age of the patients was 35.8 years (17-72 years). The most common mechanism of injury was penetrating trauma (56%); 38 patients examined had intraocular foreign bodies (IOFB). Nine work-related open globe injuries resulted in enucleation. There was a higher incidence of IOFBs (P = .0001) and penetrating injuries (P = .0005) in patients injured at work. Both the preoperative (P = .0001) and final best-corrected visual acuity (P = .0001) was better in the work-related group. The final visual acuity was better than 20/200 in 74.1% of cases of work-related open globe injuries. However, there was no difference observed in the rate of enucleations (P = .4). Work-related injuries can cause significant morbidity in a young population of patients. Based on average patient follow-up and final visual acuity, those injured at work do at least as well as, if not potentially better than, those with open globe injuries sustained outside of work. While the statistically higher rate of IOFB in the work population is not surprising, it does emphasize the importance of strict adherence to the use of eye protection in the workplace. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            A case-crossover study of transient risk factors for occupational acute hand injury.

            Workers with acute hand injuries account for over 1 000 000 emergency department visits annually in the United States. To determine potential transient risk factors for occupational acute hand injury. Subjects were recruited from 23 occupational health clinics in five northeastern states in the USA. In a telephone interview, subjects were asked to report the occurrence of seven potential risk factors within a 90-minute time period before an acute hand injury. Each case also provided control information on exposures during the month before the injury. The self-matched feature of the study design controlled for stable between-person confounders. A total of 1166 subjects were interviewed (891 men, 275 women), with a mean age (SD) of 37.2 years (11.4). The median time interval between injury and interview was 1.3 days. Sixty three per cent of subjects had a laceration. The relative risk of a hand injury was increased when working with equipment, tools, or work pieces not performing as expected (11.0, 95% CI 9.4 to 12.8), or when using a different work method to do a task (10.5, 95% CI 8.7 to 12.7). Other transient factors in decreasing order of relative risk were doing an unusual task, being distracted, and being rushed. Wearing gloves reduced the relative risk by 60% (0.4, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.5). Occupational category, job experience, and safety training were found to alter several of these effects. The results suggest the importance of these transient, potentially modifiable factors in the aetiology of acute hand injury at work. Attempts to modify these exposures by various strategies may reduce the incidence of acute hand injury at work.
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              Epidemiology of lifetime work-related eye injuries in the U.S. population associated with one or more lost days of work.

              Eye injuries are one of the most common types of work-related injuries. This study examined the lifetime prevalence rate of eye injuries at work and associated factors in the general population of the United States. The data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were analyzed for individuals aged 18 years or older (n = 28,913). Lifetime prevalence rates of work-related eye injuries were determined by different factors, calculated as the percentage of the weighted number of people who reported to have an eye injury at work divided by the weighted total number of people in the corresponding category. The overall lifetime prevalence rate of work-related eye injuries was 4.4%. The lifetime age-specific prevalence rates of work-related eye injuries ranged from 2%, 3.8%, 4.9%, 6.0%, 5.4%, 4.0%, and 3.1% for ages 18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, and 75+ years, respectively, with the highest rate in the age of 45-54 years. Men had a more than four-times higher rate of eye injury at work than women. Workers with less than a high-school education, non-Hispanic whites, self-employed, and in the midwest region were more likely to experience eye injuries (all p-values < 0.001). Occupations of precision production, transportation, or farming, and industries of mining or construction also increased the risk of eye injuries at work. Findings of the current study underscore the need of education and prevention program on eye protection at workplaces, targeting male workers, especially those who have a low education level and are self-employed.

                Author and article information

                Indian J Ophthalmol
                Indian J Ophthalmol
                Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                September 2013
                : 61
                : 9
                : 497-501
                Department of Emergency Medicine, Pamukkale University, School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
                [1 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Pamukkale University, School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
                [2 ]Department of Emergency Medicine, Acibadem University, School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr. Mustafa Serinken, Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Emergency Medicine, 20070, Denizli-Turkey. E-mail: mserinken@
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Ophthalmology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article

                Ophthalmology & Optometry

                emergency department, ocular, trauma, work related injuries


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