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      Academic self-efficacy: from educational theory to instructional practice

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          Abstract

          Self-efficacy is a personal belief in one’s capability to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances. Often described as task-specific self-confidence, self-efficacy has been a key component in theories of motivation and learning in varied contexts. Furthermore, over the last 34 years, educational researchers from diverse fields of inquiry have used the notion of self-efficacy to predict and explain a wide range of human functioning, from athletic skill to academic achievement. This article is not a systematic review of the empirical research on self-efficacy; instead, its purpose is to describe the nature and structure of self-efficacy and provide a brief overview of several instructional implications for medical education. In doing so, this article is meant to encourage medical educators to consider and explicitly address their students’ academic self-efficacy beliefs in an effort to provide more engaging and effective instruction.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Do psychosocial and study skill factors predict college outcomes? A meta-analysis.

          This study examines the relationship between psychosocial and study skill factors (PSFs) and college outcomes by meta-analyzing 109 studies. On the basis of educational persistence and motivational theory models, the PSFs were categorized into 9 broad constructs: achievement motivation, academic goals, institutional commitment, perceived social support, social involvement, academic self-efficacy, general self-concept, academic-related skills, and contextual influences. Two college outcomes were targeted: performance (cumulative grade point average; GPA) and persistence (retention). Meta-analyses indicate moderate relationships between retention and academic goals, academic self-efficacy, and academic-related skills (ps =.340,.359, and.366, respectively). The best predictors for GPA were academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation (ps =.496 and.303, respectively). Supplementary regression analyses confirmed the incremental contributions of the PSF over and above those of socioeconomic status, standardized achievement, and high school GPA in predicting college outcomes.
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            Relation of self-efficacy beliefs to academic outcomes: A meta-analytic investigation.

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              Information technology comes to medicine.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +301-295-3693 , anthony.artino@usuhs.mil,
                Journal
                Perspect Med Educ
                Perspect Med Educ
                Perspectives on Medical Education
                Bohn Stafleu van Loghum (Heidelberg )
                2212-2761
                2212-277X
                11 April 2012
                11 April 2012
                May 2012
                : 1
                : 2
                : 76-85
                Affiliations
                Preventive Medicine & Biometrics, Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 USA
                Article
                12
                10.1007/s40037-012-0012-5
                3540350
                23316462
                © The Author(s) 2012
                Categories
                Original Article
                Custom metadata
                © the authors 2012

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