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      DCEBIO-Mediated Dilations Are Attenuated in the Female Rat Middle Cerebral Artery

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      Journal of Vascular Research

      S. Karger AG

      Endothelium, Gender, Membrane potential, Vascular smooth muscle

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          Abstract

          Background: Unlike in peripheral vessels, the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-mediated component to P2Y<sub>2</sub> receptor-mediated dilations is significantly attenuated in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of female rats compared to male rats. One aspect to the EDHF phenomenon is activation of the intermediate calcium-sensitive potassium (IK<sub>Ca</sub>) channels located on the endothelium. In an attempt to pinpoint the site along the EDHF pathway that is compromised in females, we tested the hypothesis that direct activation of IK<sub>Ca</sub> channels with DCEBIO would elicit attenuated hyperpolarization in the endothelium and smooth muscle of females compared to males. Methods: Inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase were present throughout all experiments. Vessel diameter changes were assessed in pressurized and luminally perfused MCAs. Membrane potential changes in the endothelium and smooth muscle were measured using the perforated patch clamp method and sharp electrodes, respectively. Results and Conclusions: The maximum vasodilation to 3 × 10<sup>–4</sup> M DCEBIO was significantly reduced in females (37 ± 9%) compared to intact males (70 ± 4%). Endothelial cell hyperpolarization to DCEBIO was similar in both males and females. Smooth muscle cell hyperpolarization was attenuated in females (2 ± 1 mV) compared to males (15 ± 3 mV). Taken together, our data suggest that the transfer of hyperpolarization from the endothelium to the smooth muscle is impeded in the female rat MCA.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Involvement of myoendothelial gap junctions in the actions of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor.

          The nature of the vasodilator endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) is controversial, putatively involving diffusible factors and/or electrotonic spread of hyperpolarization generated in the endothelium via myoendothelial gap junctions (MEGJs). In this study, we investigated the relationship between the existence of MEGJs, endothelial cell (EC) hyperpolarization, and EDHF-attributed smooth muscle cell (SMC) hyperpolarization in two different arteries: the rat mesenteric artery, where EDHF-mediated vasodilation is prominent, and the femoral artery, where there is no EDHF-dependent relaxation. In the rat mesenteric artery, stimulation of the endothelium with acetylcholine (ACh) evoked hyperpolarization of both ECs and SMCs, and characteristic pentalaminar MEGJs were found connecting the two cell layers. In contrast, in the femoral artery, ACh evoked hyperpolarization in only ECs but not in SMCs, and no MEGJs were present. Selective hyperpolarization of ECs or SMCs evoked hyperpolarization in the other cell type in the mesenteric artery but not in the femoral artery. Disruption of gap junctional coupling using the peptide Gap 27 markedly reduced the ACh-induced hyperpolarization in SMCs, but not in ECs, of the mesenteric artery. These results show that transfer of EC hyperpolarization or of a small molecule to SMCs through MEGJs is essential and sufficient to explain EDHF.
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            Evidence for the involvement of myoendothelial gap junctions in EDHF-mediated relaxation in the rat middle cerebral artery.

            The mechanisms underlying endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) remain largely unresolved. In particular, very little is known regarding the way in which the signal is transmitted from endothelium to smooth muscle. The present study tested the hypothesis that direct communication via myoendothelial gap junctions contributes to the EDHF response in the male rat MCA. EDHF-mediated dilations were elicited in rat MCAs by luminal application of ATP or UTP in the presence of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and indomethacin. Maximum dilation to luminal ATP (10(-4) M) was reduced significantly after incubation with a gap peptide cocktail (9 +/- 4%, n = 6) compared with a scrambled gap peptide cocktail (99 +/- 1%, n = 6, P < 0.05). A gap peptide cocktail had no effect on amplitude of endothelial cell hyperpolarization in response to 3 x 10(-5) M UTP (22 +/- 3 vs. 22 +/- 1 mV, n = 4), whereas smooth muscle cell hyperpolarization was significantly attenuated (17 +/- 1 vs. 6 +/- 1 mV, n = 4, P = 0.004). Connexin (Cx) 37 was localized to smooth muscle and Cx43 to endothelium, whereas Cx40 was found in endothelium and smooth muscle. Electron microscopy revealed the existence of frequent myoendothelial junctions. The total number of myoendothelial junctions per 5 microm of MCA sectioned was 2.5 +/- 0.5. Our results suggest that myoendothelial communication contributes to smooth muscle cell hyperpolarization and EDHF dilation in male rat MCA.
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              Altered calcium dynamics do not account for attenuation of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated dilations in the female middle cerebral artery.

              The contribution of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) to ATP-mediated dilations is significantly attenuated in the rat middle cerebral artery of intact and estrogen-treated ovariectomized (OVX) females compared with males and vehicle-treated OVX females. Since an increase in endothelial calcium appears to be a critical prerequisite in the EDHF response, we tested the hypothesis that endothelial cell intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) fails to reach sufficient levels to elicit robust EDHF-mediated dilations in females and that this effect is mediated by estrogen.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2007
                April 2007
                16 February 2007
                : 44
                : 3
                : 169-174
                Affiliations
                Department of Anesthesiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex., USA
                Article
                99630 J Vasc Res 2007;44:169–174
                10.1159/000099630
                17308435
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 12, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Research Paper

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