Blog
About

0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Consequences of Intrauterine Growth Restriction for the Kidney

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Low birth weight due to intrauterine growth restriction is associated with various diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of intrauterine growth restriction on the kidney. Nephrogenesis requires a fine balance of many factors that can be disturbed by intrauterine growth restriction, leading to a low nephron endowment. The compensatory hyperfiltration in the remaining nephrons results in glomerular and systemic hypertension. Hyperfiltration is attributed to several factors, including the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and nitric oxide. Data from human and animal studies are presented, and suggest a faltering IGF-I and an inhibited RAS in intrauterine growth restriction. Hyperfiltration makes the kidney more vulnerable during additional kidney disease, and is associated with glomerular damage and kidney failure in the long run. Animal studies have provided a possible therapy with blockage of the RAS at an early stage in order to prevent the compensatory glomerular hyperfiltration, but this is far from being applicable to humans. Research is needed to further unravel the effect of intrauterine growth restriction on the kidney.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 155

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          A role for uric acid in the progression of renal disease.

          Hyperuricemia is associated with renal disease, but it is usually considered a marker of renal dysfunction rather than a risk factor for progression. Recent studies have reported that mild hyperuricemia in normal rats induced by the uricase inhibitor, oxonic acid (OA), results in hypertension, intrarenal vascular disease, and renal injury. This led to the hypothesis that uric acid may contribute to progressive renal disease. To examine the effect of hyperuricemia on renal disease progression, rats were fed 2% OA for 6 wk after 5/6 remnant kidney (RK) surgery with or without the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol, or the uricosuric agent, benziodarone. Renal function and histologic studies were performed at 6 wk. Given observations that uric acid induces vascular disease, the effect of uric acid on vascular smooth muscle cells in culture was also examined. RK rats developed transient hyperuricemia (2.7 mg/dl at week 2), but then levels returned to baseline by week 6 (1.4 mg/dl). In contrast, RK+OA rats developed higher and more persistent hyperuricemia (6 wk, 3.2 mg/dl). Hyperuricemic rats demonstrated higher BP, greater proteinuria, and higher serum creatinine than RK rats. Hyperuricemic RK rats had more renal hypertrophy and greater glomerulosclerosis (24.2 +/- 2.5 versus 17.5 +/- 3.4%; P < 0.05) and interstitial fibrosis (1.89 +/- 0.45 versus 1.52 +/- 0.47; P < 0.05). Hyperuricemic rats developed vascular disease consisting of thickening of the preglomerular arteries with smooth muscle cell proliferation; these changes were significantly more severe than a historical RK group with similar BP. Allopurinol significantly reduced uric acid levels and blocked the renal functional and histologic changes. Benziodarone reduced uric acid levels less effectively and only partially improved BP and renal function, with minimal effect on the vascular changes. To better understand the mechanism for the vascular disease, the expression of COX-2 and renin were examined. Hyperuricemic rats showed increased renal renin and COX-2 expression, the latter especially in preglomerular arterial vessels. In in vitro studies, cultured vascular smooth muscle cells incubated with uric acid also generated COX-2 with time-dependent proliferation, which was prevented by either a COX-2 or TXA-2 receptor inhibitor. Hyperuricemia accelerates renal progression in the RK model via a mechanism linked to high systemic BP and COX-2-mediated, thromboxane-induced vascular disease. These studies provide direct evidence that uric acid may be a true mediator of renal disease and progression.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Nephron number in patients with primary hypertension.

            A diminished number of nephrons has been proposed as one of the factors contributing to the development of primary hypertension. To test this hypothesis, we used a three-dimensional stereologic method to compare the number and volume of glomeruli in 10 middle-aged white patients (age range, 35 to 59 years) with a history of primary hypertension or left ventricular hypertrophy (or both) and renal arteriolar lesions with the number and volume in 10 normotensive subjects matched for sex, age, height, and weight. All 20 subjects had died in accidents. Patients with hypertension had significantly fewer glomeruli per kidney than matched normotensive controls (median, 702,379 vs. 1,429,200). Patients with hypertension also had a significantly greater glomerular volume than did the controls (median, 6.50x10(-3) mm3 vs. 2.79x10(-3) mm3; P<0.001) but very few obsolescent glomeruli. The data support the hypothesis that the number of nephrons is reduced in white patients with primary hypertension. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Glomerular number and size in autopsy kidneys: the relationship to birth weight.

              In the Southeast United States, African Americans have an estimated incidence of hypertension and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that is five times greater than Caucasians. Higher rates of low birth weight (LBW) among African Americans is suggested to predispose African Americans to the higher risk, possibly by reducing the number of glomeruli that develop in the kidney. This study investigates the relationships between age, race, gender, total glomerular number (Nglom), mean glomerular volume (Vglom), body surface area (BSA), and birth weight. Stereologic estimates of Nglom and Vglom were obtained using the physical disector/fractionator combination for autopsy kidneys from 37 African Americans and 19 Caucasians. Nglom was normally distributed and ranged from 227,327 to 1,825,380, an 8.0-fold difference. A direct linear relationship was observed between Nglom and birth weight (r = 0.423, P = 0.0012) with a regression coefficient that predicted an increase of 257,426 glomeruli per kilogram increase in birth weight (alpha = 0.050:0.908). Among adults there was a 4.9-fold range in Vglom, and in adults, Vglom was strongly and inversely correlated with Nglom (r =-0.640, P = 0.000002). Adult Vglom showed no significant correlation with BSA for males (r = -0.0150, P = 0.936), although it did for females (r = 0.606, P = 0.022). No racial differences in average Nglom or Vglom were observed. Birth weight is a strong determinant of Nglom and thereby of glomerular size in the postnatal kidney. The findings support the hypothesis that LBW by impairing nephron development is a risk factor for hypertension and ESRD in adulthood.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2006
                August 2006
                15 August 2006
                : 29
                : 2
                : 108-125
                Affiliations
                Departments of aPediatric Nephrology and bPediatric Endocrinology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                Article
                94538 Kidney Blood Press Res 2006;29:108–125
                10.1159/000094538
                16837795
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 360, Pages: 18
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/94538
                Categories
                Review

                Comments

                Comment on this article