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      Relationship between platelet indices and red cell distribution width and short-term mortality in traumatic brain injury with 30-day mortality

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          SUMMARY

          OBJECTIVE:

          This study aimed at investigating whether there is a relationship between 7- or 30-day mortality and mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, platelet count-to-total lymphocyte count ratio, or red cell distribution width in patients with traumatic brain injury.

          METHODS:

          We retrospectively analyzed intensive care unit patients with traumatic brain injury. We recorded patients’ ages; genders; diagnoses; Glasgow Coma Scale scores; length of intensive care unit stay (in days); mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, platelet count-to-total lymphocyte count ratio, and red cell distribution width values upon hospital admission; and health on the 7th and 30th days of their stays.

          RESULTS:

          We analyzed data from 110 patients. Of these, 84 (76.4%) were male and 26 (23.6%) were female. On the 7- and 30-day mortality evaluations, compared to the living patients, the deceased patients had a significantly higher median age and a significantly lower median Glasgow Coma Scale. Thus, increased age and lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores were associated with increased 7- and 30-day mortality rates. mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width values were similar in living and deceased patients. platelet count-to-total lymphocyte count ratio values were lower in deceased patients, but this difference was not statistically significant. Within 30 days after traumatic brain injury, deceased patients’ red cell distribution width values were significantly elevated in deceased patients compared to those of living patients.

          CONCLUSION:

          Mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, and platelet count-to-total lymphocyte count ratio values were not associated with 7- and 30-day mortality, whereas only elevated red cell distribution width was associated with 30-day mortality.

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          Most cited references29

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          Mean Platelet Volume (MPV): New Perspectives for an Old Marker in the Course and Prognosis of Inflammatory Conditions

          Platelet size has been demonstrated to reflect platelet activity and seems to be a useful predictive and prognostic biomarker of cardiovascular events. It is associated with a variety of prothrombotic and proinflammatory diseases. The aim is a review of literature reports concerning changes in the mean platelet volume (MPV) and its possible role as a biomarker in inflammatory processes and neoplastic diseases. PubMed database was searched for sources using the following keywords: platelet activation, platelet count, mean platelet volume and: inflammation, cancer/tumor, cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarction, diabetes, lupus disease, rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, ulcerative colitis, renal disease, pulmonary disease, influencing factors, age, gender, genetic factors, oral contraceptives, smoking, lifestyle, methods, standardization, and hematological analyzer. Preference was given to the sources which were published within the past 20 years. Increased MPV was observed in cardiovascular diseases, cerebral stroke, respiratory diseases, chronic renal failure, intestine diseases, rheumatoid diseases, diabetes, and various cancers. Decreased MPV was noted in tuberculosis during disease exacerbation, ulcerative colitis, SLE in adult, and different neoplastic diseases. The study of MPV can provide important information on the course and prognosis in many inflammatory conditions. Therefore, from the clinical point of view, it would be interesting to establish an MPV cut-off value indicating the intensity of inflammatory process, presence of the disease, increased risk of disease development, increased risk of thrombotic complications, increased risk of death, and patient's response on applied treatment. Nevertheless, this aspect of MPV evaluation allowing its use in clinical practice is limited and requires further studies.
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            Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio, Monocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratio, Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio, and Mean Platelet Volume-to-Platelet Count Ratio as Biomarkers in Critically Ill and Injured Patients: Which Ratio to Choose to Predict Outcome and Nature of Bacteremia?

            Background Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and mean platelet volume-to-platelet count (MPV/PC) ratio are readily available parameters that might have discriminative power regarding outcome. The aim of our study was to assess prognostic value of these biomarkers regarding outcome in critically ill patients with secondary sepsis and/or trauma. Methods A total of 392 critically ill and injured patients, admitted to surgical ICU, were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Leukocyte and platelet counts were recorded upon fulfilling Sepsis-3 criteria and for traumatized Injury Severity Score > 25 points. Patients were divided into four subgroups: peritonitis, pancreatitis, trauma with sepsis, and trauma without sepsis. Results NLR and MPV/PC levels were significantly higher in nonsurvivors (AUC/ROC of 0.681 and 0.592, resp., in the peritonitis subgroup; 0.717 and 0.753, resp., in the pancreatitis subgroup); MLR and PLR did not differ significantly. There was no significant difference of investigated biomarkers between survivors and nonsurvivors in trauma patients with and without sepsis except for PLR in the trauma without sepsis subgroup (significantly higher in nonsurvivors, AUC/ROC of 0.719). Independent predictor of lethal outcome was NLR in the whole cohort and in the peritonitis subgroup as well as MPV in the pancreatitis subgroup. Also, there were statistically significant differences in MPV/PC, MLR, and PLR values regarding nature of bacteremia. In general, the lowest levels had been found in patients with Gram-positive blood cultures. Conclusions NLR and MPV were very good independent predictors of lethal outcome. For the first time, we demonstrate that nature of bacteremia influences MPV/PC, MLR, and PLR. In heterogeneous cohort subgroup, analysis is essential.
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              Platelet function following trauma. A multiple electrode aggregometry study.

              Platelets play a central role in coagulation. Currently, information on platelet function following trauma is limited. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to the emergency room (ER) at the AUVA Trauma Centre, Salzburg, after sustaining traumatic injury. Immediately after admission to the ER, blood was drawn for blood cell counts, standard coagulation tests, and platelet function testing. Platelet function was assessed by multiplate electrode aggregometry (MEA) using adenosine diphosphate (ADPtest), collagen (COLtest) and thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 (TRAPtest) as activators. The thromboelastometric platelet component, measuring the contribution of platelets to the elasticity of the whole-blood clot, was assessed using the ROTEM device. The study included 163 patients, 79.7% were male, and the median age was 43 years. The median injury severity score was 18. Twenty patients (12.3%) died. Median platelet count was significantly lower among non-survivors than survivors (181,000/μl vs. 212,000/μl; p=0.01). Although platelet function defects were relatively minor, significant differences between survivors and non-survivors were observed in the ADPtest (94 vs. 79 U; p=0.0019), TRAPtest (136 vs. 115 U; p<0.0001), and platelet component (134 vs.103 MCEEXTEM - MCEFIBTEM; p=0.0012). Aggregometry values below the normal range for ADPtest and TRAPtest were significantly more frequent in non-survivors than in survivors (p=0.0017 and p=0.0002, respectively). Minor decreases in platelet function upon admission to the ER were a sign of coagulopathy accompanying increased mortality in patients with trauma. Further studies are warranted to confirm these results and investigate the role of platelet function in trauma haemostatic management.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Resources
                Role: Formal AnalysisRole: Validation
                Role: Data curationRole: Resources
                Role: Data curationRole: Resources
                Role: Data curationRole: Resources
                Journal
                Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
                Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
                ramb
                Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
                Associação Médica Brasileira
                0104-4230
                1806-9282
                17 February 2023
                2023
                : 69
                : 1
                : 18-23
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Sakarya University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation – Sakarya, Turkey.
                [2 ]Dogus University, Hisar Intercontinental Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation – İstanbul, Turkey.
                [3 ]Istanbul Umraniye Training and Research Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation – İstanbul, Turkey.
                [4 ]Sakarya University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics – Sakarya, Turkey.
                [5 ]Sakarya University Training and Research Hospital, Department of Intensive Care – Sakarya, Turkey.
                [6 ]Sakarya University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery – Sakarya, Turkey.
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: mdpalabiyikonur@ 123456yahoo.com

                Conflicts of interest: the authors declare there is no conflicts of interest.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3876-4279
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7458-0501
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4718-7402
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8497-4704
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6764-2647
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9822-4031
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2056-2786
                Article
                1806-9282.00210889
                10.1590/1806-9282.00210889
                9937619
                36820710
                7583b906-e825-4696-a542-8a298792523a

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 07 August 2022
                : 12 September 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 28, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Article

                mean platelet volume,mortality,red cell distribution width,brain injuries, traumatic

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