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      Factors Affecting Doses of Roxadustat Versus Darbepoetin Alfa for Anemia in Nondialysis Patients


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          Introduction: Roxadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor for treating anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This post hoc analysis of a Japanese, open-label, partially randomized, phase 3 study in nondialysis-dependent (NDD) CKD patients treated with traditional erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) evaluated dosing trends of roxadustat and darbepoetin alfa (DA) required to maintain target hemoglobin concentrations in patients with risk factors associated with ESA hyporesponsiveness. Methods: Patients enrolled in the 1517-CL-0310 study (NCT02988973) that demonstrated noninferiority of roxadustat to DA for change in average hemoglobin levels of week 18–24 from baseline who had used human recombinant erythropoietin or DA before conversion and who were randomized to either roxadustat or DA were included. The endpoints were the average allocated dose of roxadustat and DA per administration in the last 6 weeks (AAD/6W), assessed by subgroups known to be associated with ESA hyporesponsiveness. The analysis of variance was performed by the treatment group to test the influence of subgroup factors on the AAD/6W of study drug. The ratios between the mean AAD/6W in each subgroup category and the within-arm mean AAD/6W were calculated. Results: Two hundred and sixty-two patients were randomized to either the roxadustat or DA comparative group and received treatment (roxadustat, n = 131; DA, n = 131). Higher mean (standard deviation) doses of both roxadustat (63.15 [24.84] mg) and DA (47.33 [29.79] μg) were required in the highest ESA resistance index (≥6.8) quartile ( p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). Patients with adequate iron repletion had the lowest doses for both roxadustat (45.54 [18.01] mg) and DA (28.13 [20.98] μg). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥28.57 nmol/L and the estimated glomerular filtration rate <15 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> were associated with requiring higher DA but not roxadustat doses. Discussion/Conclusion: The roxadustat dose required to maintain target hemoglobin in NDD patients in Japan with anemia of CKD relative to DA dose may not be impacted by low-grade inflammation. Roxadustat may be beneficial for ESA-hyporesponsive NDD CKD patients.

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          A trial of darbepoetin alfa in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease.

          Anemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and renal events among patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Although darbepoetin alfa can effectively increase hemoglobin levels, its effect on clinical outcomes in these patients has not been adequately tested. In this study involving 4038 patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and anemia, we randomly assigned 2012 patients to darbepoetin alfa to achieve a hemoglobin level of approximately 13 g per deciliter and 2026 patients to placebo, with rescue darbepoetin alfa when the hemoglobin level was less than 9.0 g per deciliter. The primary end points were the composite outcomes of death or a cardiovascular event (nonfatal myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, or hospitalization for myocardial ischemia) and of death or end-stage renal disease. Death or a cardiovascular event occurred in 632 patients assigned to darbepoetin alfa and 602 patients assigned to placebo (hazard ratio for darbepoetin alfa vs. placebo, 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.17; P=0.41). Death or end-stage renal disease occurred in 652 patients assigned to darbepoetin alfa and 618 patients assigned to placebo (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.19; P=0.29). Fatal or nonfatal stroke occurred in 101 patients assigned to darbepoetin alfa and 53 patients assigned to placebo (hazard ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.38 to 2.68; P<0.001). Red-cell transfusions were administered to 297 patients assigned to darbepoetin alfa and 496 patients assigned to placebo (P<0.001). There was only a modest improvement in patient-reported fatigue in the darbepoetin alfa group as compared with the placebo group. The use of darbepoetin alfa in patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and moderate anemia who were not undergoing dialysis did not reduce the risk of either of the two primary composite outcomes (either death or a cardiovascular event or death or a renal event) and was associated with an increased risk of stroke. For many persons involved in clinical decision making, this risk will outweigh the potential benefits. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00093015.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Correction of anemia with epoetin alfa in chronic kidney disease.

            Anemia, a common complication of chronic kidney disease, usually develops as a consequence of erythropoietin deficiency. Recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin alfa) is indicated for the correction of anemia associated with this condition. However, the optimal level of hemoglobin correction is not defined. In this open-label trial, we studied 1432 patients with chronic kidney disease, 715 of whom were randomly assigned to receive a dose of epoetin alfa targeted to achieve a hemoglobin level of 13.5 g per deciliter and 717 of whom were assigned to receive a dose targeted to achieve a level of 11.3 g per deciliter. The median study duration was 16 months. The primary end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for congestive heart failure (without renal replacement therapy), and stroke. A total of 222 composite events occurred: 125 events in the high-hemoglobin group, as compared with 97 events in the low-hemoglobin group (hazard ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.74; P=0.03). There were 65 deaths (29.3%), 101 hospitalizations for congestive heart failure (45.5%), 25 myocardial infarctions (11.3%), and 23 strokes (10.4%). Seven patients (3.2%) were hospitalized for congestive heart failure and myocardial infarction combined, and one patient (0.5%) died after having a stroke. Improvements in the quality of life were similar in the two groups. More patients in the high-hemoglobin group had at least one serious adverse event. The use of a target hemoglobin level of 13.5 g per deciliter (as compared with 11.3 g per deciliter) was associated with increased risk and no incremental improvement in the quality of life. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00211120 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Markers of Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease: Application to Clinical and Public Health Practice: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association


                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                November 2021
                08 October 2021
                : 52
                : 9
                : 702-713
                [_a] aShowa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                [_b] bMedical Science, Medical Affairs, Astellas Pharma, Inc., Tokyo, Japan
                [_c] cJapan-Asia Clinical Development, Astellas Pharma, Inc., Tokyo, Japan
                [_d] dData Science, Development, Astellas Pharma, Inc., Tokyo, Japan
                519043 Am J Nephrol 2021;52:702–713
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 17 June 2021
                : 14 August 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Pages: 12
                Novel Research Findings

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Anemia,Chronic kidney disease,Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent,Hemoglobin,Roxadustat


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