7
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      C3 Glomerulonephritis: Clinicopathologic findings, complement abnormalities, glomerular proteomic profile, treatment and follow-up

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          C3 Glomerulonephritis (C3GN) is a recently described disorder that typically results from abnormalities in the alternative pathway of complement. Here, we describe the clinical features, kidney biopsy findings, alternative pathway abnormalities, glomerular proteomic profile, and follow-up in 12 cases of C3GN. This disorder equally affected all ages, both genders, and typically presented with hematuria and proteinuria. In both the short and long term, renal function remained stable in the majority of patients with native kidney disease. In two patients, C3GN recurred within one year of transplantation and resulted in a decline in allograft function. Kidney biopsy mainly showed a membranoproliferative pattern; although both mesangial proliferative and diffuse endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis were noted. Alternative pathway abnormalities were heterogeneous; both acquired and genetic. The most common acquired abnormality was the presence of C3 nephritic factors, while the most common genetic finding was the presence of H402 and V62 alleles of Factor H. In addition to these risk factors, other abnormalities included Factor H auto-antibodies and mutations in CFH, CFI and CFHR genes. Laser dissection and mass spectrometry of glomeruli from patients with C3GN showed accumulation of alternative pathway and terminal complement complex proteins. Thus, C3GN results from diverse abnormalities of the alternative complement pathway leading to subsequent glomerular injury.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 30

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          C3 glomerulopathy: a new classification.

          Several distinct pathological patterns of glomerular inflammation are associated with abnormal regulation of the complement system, specifically, with dysregulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system. However, these conditions share the pathological finding of complement C3 (C3) deposited within the glomerulus in the absence of substantial immunoglobulin. This finding has alerted us and others to the possible presence of genetic and acquired complement dysregulation in individual patients. This article summarizes our current understanding of the relationship between dysregulation of the complement system and glomerular inflammation. Here, we suggest that glomerular pathologies that are characterized by the isolated deposition of C3 could usefully be classified by the term C3 glomerulopathy. In our view, this classification would alert the pathologist and nephrologist to the importance of screening for acquired and genetic abnormalities in complement regulation. In the future, it could help to identify individuals who might benefit from therapeutic inhibition of the complement system.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Primary glomerulonephritis with isolated C3 deposits: a new entity which shares common genetic risk factors with haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

            Abnormal control of the complement alternative pathway (CAP) (factor H, factor I and membrane cofactor protein (MCP) deficiencies) is a well established risk factor for the occurrence of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). In some instances, HUS may be associated with an unusual glomerulonephritis with isolated C3 deposits (glomerulonephritis C3). We determined whether HUS and glomerulonephritis C3 share common genetic susceptibility factors. We identified 19 patients with glomerulonephritis C3. We measured levels of circulating complement components, performed assays for the detection of C3 nephritic factor (C3NeF) and screened factor H, factor I and MCP coding genes for the presence of mutations. Patients were divided in two groups based on renal pathology findings: group I (n = 13) had typical features of type I membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (glomerulonephritis C3 with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN)) and group II (n = 6) was characterised by mesangial and epimembranous C3 deposits in the absence of mesangial proliferation (glomerulonephritis C3 without MPGN). Mutations in complement regulatory genes were detected in 4/6 patients with glomerulonephritis C3 without MPGN (heterozygous mutations in factor H gene (two patients) with low factor H antigenic level in one case, heterozygous mutations in factor I gene (two patients)) and in only 2/13 patients with glomerulonephritis C3 with MPGN (heterozygous mutations in factor H gene (one patient) and double heterozygous mutation in CD 46 gene (one patient)). In contrast, C3NeF was present in 5/13 patients with glomerulonephritis C3 with MPGN and in 2/6 patients with glomerulonephritis C3 without MPGN, one of whom had a factor H mutation. HUS and glomerulonephritis C3 without MPGN share common genetic risk factors. Constitutional or acquired dysregulation of the CAP is probably associated with a wide spectrum of diseases, ranging from HUS to glomerulonephritis C3 with MPGN.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              New approaches to the treatment of dense deposit disease.

              The development of clinical treatment protocols usually relies on evidence-based guidelines that focus on randomized, controlled trials. For rare renal diseases, such stringent requirements can represent a significant challenge. Dense deposit disease (DDD; also known as membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II) is a prototypical rare disease. It affects only two to three people per million and leads to renal failure within 10 yr in 50% of affected children. On the basis of pathophysiology, this article presents a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for patients with DDD. Diagnostic tests should assess the alternative pathway of complement for abnormalities. Treatment options include aggressive BP control and reduction of proteinuria, and on the basis of pathophysiology, animal data, and human studies, plasma infusion or exchange, rituximab, sulodexide, and eculizumab are additional options. Criteria for treatment success should be prevention of progression as determined by maintenance or improvement in renal function. A secondary criterion should be normalization of activity levels of the alternative complement pathway as measured by C3/C3d ratios and C3NeF levels. Outcomes should be reported to a central repository that is now accessible to all clinicians. As the understanding of DDD increases, novel therapies should be integrated into existing protocols for DDD and evaluated using an open-label Bayesian study design.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                0323470
                5428
                Kidney Int
                Kidney Int.
                Kidney international
                0085-2538
                1523-1755
                9 May 2015
                August 2012
                20 May 2015
                : 82
                : 4
                : 465-473
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Anatomic Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
                [2 ]Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
                [3 ]Molecular Otolaryngology and Renal Research Laboratories, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA
                [4, 5 ]Departments of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Divisions of Nephrology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author Sanjeev Sethi, MD, PhD, Division of Anatomic Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, MN 55905, Phone (507) 538-1414, Fax (507) 538-8321, Sethi.sanjeev@ 123456mayo.edu
                [*]

                SS and FCF contributed equally to the manuscript

                Article
                NIHMS374716
                10.1038/ki.2012.212
                4438675
                22673887

                Users may view, print, copy, and download text and data-mine the content in such documents, for the purposes of academic research, subject always to the full Conditions of use: http://www.nature.com/authors/editorial_policies/license.html#terms

                Categories
                Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article