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      Prosorhynchus crucibulum (Digenea: Bucephalidae) miracidium morphology and its passive transmission pattern Translated title: Morphologie et mode de transmission passive du miracidium de Prosorhynchus crucibulum (Digenea: Bucephalidae)

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          The characterization of Prosorhynchus crucibulum (Rudolphi, 1819) Odhner, 1905 egg and miracidium is important in order to better understand the transmission dynamics between the definitive host and the primary host, the mussel. In this way, the objective of this work was to study the miracidia morphology, in order to evaluate if this species belongs to the group of passive or active transmission larvae. The morphology of eggs is similar to the ones presented by other Prosorhynchus species, with a small size of 26 × 17 μm, and four-five times smaller than the ones of Fasciola hepatica. The number of eggs produced per worm was around 6,760 (4,236-8,401), which was four-five times higher than in F. hepatica. The miracidia presented small dimensions 24 × 15 μm (23-25 × 13-15 μm range), a long stylet, two ciliated epithelial plates, very long cilia (12.7 μm) and absence of terebratorium and eyespots. Those features of the miracidia suggest that P. crucibulum belongs to the group of passively infecting larvae.

          Translated abstract

          La morphologie des oeufs et du miracidium de Prosorhynchus crucibulum (Rudolphi, 1819) Odhner, 1905 est importante afin de mieux comprendre le mode de transmission entre l’hôte définitif et l’hôte intermédiaire, la moule. L’objectif de ce travail était d’étudier la morphologie du miracidium afin de savoir si l’espèce appartient au groupe des larves à transmission passive ou active. La morphologie des oeufs est semblable à celle d’autres espèces de Prosorhynchus, avec une taille de 26 × 17 μm, quatre-cinq fois plus petite que celle de Fasciola hepatica. Le nombre moyen d’oeufs produits par ver est de 6 760 (4 236-8 401), quatre-cinq fois plus élevé que celui observé avec F. hepatica. Le miracidium est également de petite dimension, 24 × 15 μm (23-25 × 13-15 μm), avec un long stylet, les deux plans épithéliaux ciliés, des cils de dimension très longue (12,7 μm) et l’absence de terebratorium et d’ocelle. Ces caractéristiques du miracidium de P. crucibulum suggèrent que l’espèce appartient au groupe des larves à infection passive.

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          Parasites and symbionts from Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamark, 1819) (Bivalves: Mytilidae) of the Aveiro Estuary Portugal.

          The primary aim of the present study was to conduct a 1-yr parasitological survey of a Mytilus galloprovincialis mussel population from the Aveiro Estuary, Portugal. In addition, we attempted to assess the host response to parasites by examining host histopathology, including an evaluation of hemocyte infiltration and parasite encapsulation. The parasites present (prevalence) included the following: 1 protozoan, Nematopsis sp. (70%); 1 turbellarian, Urastoma cyprinae, (39%); 2 trematodes, Diphtherostomum sp. (58%) and Prosorhynchus crucibulum (0.3%); 3 crustaceans, Bathylaophonte azorica (0.3%); and 2 species of Mytilicola sp. (3.5%), M. intestinalis and M. orientalis. Highest prevalences for the most abundant species occurred in summer and autumn. Histological sections of the mantle of infected mussels revealed a marked reduction in the reproductive tissue, indicating that P. crucibulum invades the mussel and promotes a severe damage to its reproductive capacity.
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            Morphological features of Prosorhynchus crucibulum and P. aculeatus (Digenea: Bucephalidae), intestinal parasites of Conger conger (Pisces: Congridae), elucidated by scanning electron microscopy.

            The external morphology of two bucephalid digenean parasites of Conger conger (Linnaeus) (Congridae, Anguilliformes) caught northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, Prosorhynchus crucibulum (Rudolphi, 1819) Odhner, 1905 and P. aculeatus Odhner, 1905, were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM techniques elucidated new external morphological details, mainly relating to the tegument and protruding organs, such as, in P. crucibulum, a papilla-like structure associated with the pharynx and, in P. aculeatus, the cirrus. The tegument bears scale-like spines, which in both species are arranged quincuncially. The spines of P. crucibulum are wider than long and cover the major part of the body and rhynchus. However, no spines were found in either the central apical depression of the rhynchus or in the middle of the ventral indentation. Also, spines were rarely seen on the tegument around mouth, around the genital aperture or close to the excretory pore. P. aculeatus has spines of a different shape, as wide as they are long and with a rounded margin. They cover the whole body and almost the entire rhynchus, but none were found in the middle of the rhynchus or on its neck region.
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              Prosorhynchus maternus sp. n. (Digenea: Bucephalidae) from the Malabar grouper Epinephelus malabaricus (Perciformes: Serranidae) off New Caledonia.

              A new species, Prosorhynchus maternus sp. n., is described from the serranid fish Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch et Schneider) in the waters off New Caledonia. It belongs to a group of Prosorhynchus species from serranids in which the uterus is restricted to the postovarian region. Its distinguishing features include the vitellarium relatively distant from the rhynchus, the cirrus-sac relatively distant from the posterior testis, the distinctly pre-equatorial mouth and several other somatic ratios. New records of Prosorhynchus longisaccatus Durio et Manter, 1968 from Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson) and Prosorhynchoides lamprelli Bott et Cribb, 2005 from Caranx papuensis Alleyne et Macleay off New Caledonia are also included.

                Author and article information

                Parasite : journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
                EDP Sciences
                August 2012
                15 August 2012
                : 19
                : 3 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2012/03 )
                : 277-280
                [1 ] Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Ciências, Departamento de Biologia, Rua do Campo Alegre, s/n., FC4, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal, and CIMAR Laboratório Associado / CIIMAR, Centro de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental Rua dos Bragas, 289 4050-123 Porto Portugal
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Maria João Santos. Tel.: 351 220 402 805 – Fax: 351 220 402 709. E-mail: mjsantos@ 123456fc.up.pt
                parasite2012193p277 10.1051/parasite/2012193277
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2012

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 17, Pages: 4
                Research Note


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