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      Effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine on Intracerebroventricular Colchicine Induced Cognitive Deficits, Beta Amyloid Pathology, and Glial Cells

      1 , 2 , , 2 , 3

      Neuroscience Journal

      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          Among the many factors responsible for the cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease, beta amyloid protein and plaque formation is crucial. This amyloid pathology is associated with activation of glial cells and oxidative stress but whether oxidative stress activates beta amyloid protein in the neurons is not clear. Further the expression of microglia is also known to vary during pathogenesis of beta amyloid plaques. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant effect of NAC on amyloid pathology and cognition and also to investigate the link between amyloid pathology and glial cells activation. Intracerebroventricular colchicine in rats known mimics human AD in many aspects including memory loss, oxidative stress, and hyper phosphorylation of tau protein. The animal groups consisted of age matched control, sham operated, AD, and NAC treated in AD models of rats. Cognitive function was evaluated in active avoidance test; beta amyloid protein, beta amyloid plaques, astrocytes, and microglia cells were quantified using immunohistochemistry in hippocampal and prefrontal cortices. Colchicine has resulted in significant cognitive loss, increased intraneuronal beta amyloid protein expression, increased reactive astrocytes, and activated microglia in all the regions of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortices. The antioxidant NAC has reversed the cognitive deficits and inhibited microglia activation but failed to inhibit BAP expression and astrocytosis. Intraneuronal BAP accumulation is deleterious and known to adversely affect cognition, but in this study in spite of intraneuronal BAP accumulation, the cognition is restored. It can be postulated that NAC might have reversed the effect of intraneuronal beta amyloid protein by acting on some downstream compensatory mechanisms which needs to be explored.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Energy metabolism in astrocytes: high rate of oxidative metabolism and spatiotemporal dependence on glycolysis/glycogenolysis.

          Astrocytic energy demand is stimulated by K(+) and glutamate uptake, signaling processes, responses to neurotransmitters, Ca(2+) fluxes, and filopodial motility. Astrocytes derive energy from glycolytic and oxidative pathways, but respiration, with its high-energy yield, provides most adenosine 5' triphosphate (ATP). The proportion of cortical oxidative metabolism attributed to astrocytes ( approximately 30%) in in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic and autoradiographic studies corresponds to their volume fraction, indicating similar oxidation rates in astrocytes and neurons. Astrocyte-selective expression of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) enables synthesis of glutamate from glucose, accounting for two-thirds of astrocytic glucose degradation via combined pyruvate carboxylation and dehydrogenation. Together, glutamate synthesis and oxidation, including neurotransmitter turnover, generate almost as much energy as direct glucose oxidation. Glycolysis and glycogenolysis are essential for astrocytic responses to increasing energy demand because astrocytic filopodial and lamellipodial extensions, which account for 80% of their surface area, are too narrow to accommodate mitochondria; these processes depend on glycolysis, glycogenolysis, and probably diffusion of ATP and phosphocreatine formed via mitochondrial metabolism to satisfy their energy demands. High glycogen turnover in astrocytic processes may stimulate glucose demand and lactate production because less ATP is generated when glucose is metabolized via glycogen, thereby contributing to the decreased oxygen to glucose utilization ratio during brain activation. Generated lactate can spread from activated astrocytes via low-affinity monocarboxylate transporters and gap junctions, but its subsequent fate is unknown. Astrocytic metabolic compartmentation arises from their complex ultrastructure; astrocytes have high oxidative rates plus dependence on glycolysis and glycogenolysis, and their energetics is underestimated if based solely on glutamate cycling.
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            Concomitant astroglial atrophy and astrogliosis in a triple transgenic animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

            Astrocytes are fundamental for brain homeostasis and are at the fulcrum of neurological diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we monitored changes in astroglia morphology throughout the age-dependent progression of AD. We used an immunohistochemical approach that allows us to determine the domain of glial cytoskeleton, by measuring the surface, volume, and the relationship between astrocytes and neuritic plaques. We investigated astroglia in the hippocampus of a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD) that mimics the progression of the human disease. The numerical density of astrocytes is affected neither by AD nor by age. We found reduction of surface and volume of GFAP profiles from early ages (6 months; 43.84 and 52.76%, respectively), persisting at 12 (40.73 and 45.39%) and 18 months (64.80 and 71.95%) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of 3xTg-AD, whereas in CA1 it appears at 18 months (29.42 and 32.74%). This cytoskeleton atrophy is accompanied by a significant reduction of glial somata volume in DG at 12 and 18 months (40.46 and 75.55%, respectively), whereas in CA1 it is significant at 18 months (42.81%). However, while astroglial atrophy appears as a generalized process, astrocytes surrounding plaques are clearly hypertrophic as revealed by increased surface (48.06%; 66.66%), and volume (57.10%; 71.06%) of GFAP profiles in DG and CA1, respectively, at 18 months. We suggest differential effects of AD on astroglial populations depending on their association with plaques accounting for the progressive disruption of neural networks connectivity and neurotransmitters imbalance which underlie mnesic and cognitive impairments observed in AD.
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              The Antioxidant Role of Glutathione and N-Acetyl-Cysteine Supplements and Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

              An increase in exercise intensity is one of the many ways in which oxidative stress and free radical production has been shown to increase inside our cells. Effective regulation of the cellular balance between oxidation and antioxidation is important when considering cellular function and DNA integrity as well as the signal transduction of gene expression. Many pathological states, such as cancer, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease have been shown to be related to the redox state of cells. In an attempt to minimize the onset of oxidative stress, supplementation with various known antioxidants has been suggested. Glutathione and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) are antioxidants which are quite popular for their ability to minimize oxidative stress and the downstream negative effects thought to be associated with oxidative stress. Glutathione is largely known to minimize the lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes and other such targets that is known to occur with oxidative stress. N-acetyl-cysteine is a by-product of glutathione and is popular due to its cysteine residues and the role it has on glutathione maintenance and metabolism. The process of oxidative stress is a complicated, inter-twined series of events which quite possibly is related to many other cellular processes. Exercise enthusiasts and researchers have become interested in recent years to identify any means to help minimize the detrimental effects of oxidative stress that are commonly associated with intense and unaccustomed exercise. It is possible that a decrease in the amount of oxidative stress a cell is exposed to could increase health and performance.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Neurosci J
                Neurosci J
                NEUROSCIENCE
                Neuroscience Journal
                Hindawi
                2314-4262
                2314-4270
                2019
                15 April 2019
                : 2019
                Affiliations
                1Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, India
                2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
                3Department of Psychiatry, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, India
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Jesus Pastor

                Article
                10.1155/2019/7547382
                6500609
                Copyright © 2019 Teresa Joy et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

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