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      Childhood overweight, obesity and associated factors among primary school children in dire dawa, eastern Ethiopia; a cross-sectional study

      , 1 , 2 , 1

      BMC obesity

      BioMed Central

      Overweight, Obesity, Children, School, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia

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          Abstract

          Background

          Obesity in children is increasing worldwide. Malnutrition has become a double burden challenge of public health concern in developing countries. Childhood obesity increases the risk of chronic disease in childhood as well as adulthood. However, information is very scarce about childhood obesity in developing countries specifically in Ethiopia. Therefore, we aimed to assess childhood overweight, obesity and associated factors among primary school children at Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia.

          Methods

          A school based cross-sectional study was conducted in Dire Dawa from 1 st to 30 th March, 2016. Study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Pre-tested self-administered questionnaire, face to face interview technique and anthropometric measurements were used to collect data by eight well trained data collectors. Data were coded, cleaned and entered into EpiData software version 3.5.1, and exported into SPSS (version 21.0) statistical software, for data analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were carried out to identify associated factors with childhood overweight and obesity. Statistical significance was declared using Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) at 95% CI and p-value less than 0.05.

          Results

          The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 14.7% (95% CI: 11.7, 18.0) and 5.8% (95% CI: 3.6, 8.0), respectively. Children who were from private school (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.4, 8.5), from families belonged to high socioeconomic class (AOR = 16.9, 95% CI: 6.5, 23.9), preferred sweetened foods (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.1), had not engaged in regular physical exercise (AOR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.5, 9.8), had experienced sedentary life style like spent their free time watching TV (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.6, 7.9), play computer game (AOR = 4.6, 95% CI:1.4,15.4), and were not having close friends (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.2) were significantly associated with overweight/obesity risk.

          Conclusion

          Overweight /obesity in children is on alarming stage in the study area. Therefore, more attention should be given to creating awareness about healthy diet and improving life style through school and public media in collaboration with concerned bodies.

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          Most cited references 40

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          A commentary on studies presenting projections of the future prevalence of dementia

          Background Population ageing over the first half of this century is likely to lead to dramatic increases in the prevalence of dementia. This will affect all regions of the world, but particularly developing regions. Dementia projections have been used extensively to support policy. It is therefore important these projections are as accurate as possible. Discussion In this paper we provide a commentary on studies projecting the future prevalence of dementia for the world or for individual continents. We identify some important limitations of the methods used in published projections and provide recommendations to improve the accuracy of future projections, and allow for the checking of the accuracy of the predictions. Summary Accurate projections of dementia incidence, at both the global and local level, are essential for healthcare planners.
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            Overweight and obesity in urban Africa: A problem of the rich or the poor?

            Background Obesity is a well recognized risk factor for various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to shed light on the patterns of overweight and obesity in sub-Saharan Africa, with special interest in differences between the urban poor and the urban non-poor. The specific goals were to describe trends in overweight and obesity among urban women; and examine how these trends vary by education and household wealth. Methods The paper used Demographic and Health Surveys data from seven African countries where two surveys had been carried out with an interval of at least 10 years between them. Among the countries studied, the earliest survey took place in 1992 and the latest in 2005. The dependent variable was body mass index coded as: Not overweight/obese; Overweight; Obese. The key covariates were time lapse between the two surveys; woman's education; and household wealth. Control variables included working status, age, marital status, parity, and country. Multivariate ordered logistic regression in the context of the partial proportional odds model was used. Results Descriptive results showed that the prevalence of urban overweight/obesity increased by nearly 35% during the period covered. The increase was higher among the poorest (+50%) than among the richest (+7%). Importantly, there was an increase of 45-50% among the non-educated and primary-educated women, compared to a drop of 10% among women with secondary education or higher. In the multivariate analysis, the odds ratio of the variable time lapse was 1.05 (p < 0.01), indicating that the prevalence of overweight/obesity increased by about 5% per year on average in the countries in the study. While the rate of change in urban overweight/obesity did not significantly differ between the poor and the rich, it was substantially higher among the non-educated women than among their educated counterparts. Conclusion Overweight and obesity are on the rise in Africa and might take epidemic proportions in the near future. Like several other public health challenges, overweight and obesity should be tackled and prevented early as envisioned in the WHO Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health.
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              Childhood Obesity: A Global Public Health Crisis

              Introduction: Childhood obesity is a major public health crisis nationally and internationally. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over few years. It is caused by imbalance between calorie intake and calories utilized. One or more factors (genetic, behavioral, and environmental) cause obesity in children. Physical, psychological, and social health problems are caused due to childhood obesity. Hence, effective intervention strategies are being used to prevent and control obesity in children. The purpose of this manuscript is to address various factors influencing childhood obesity, a variety of interventions and governmental actions addressing obesity and the challenges ahead for managing this epidemic. Methods: In order to collect materials for this review a detailed search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, ERIC, Academic Search Premier databases was carried out for the time period 1999-2011. Results: Some of the interventions used were family based, school based, community based, play based, and hospital based. The effective school-based interventions were seen targeting physical activity along with healthy diet education. The major challenges faced by these intervention programs are financial, along with stigmatization of obese children. Governments along with other health care organizations are taking effective actions like policy changing and environmentally safe interventions for children to improve physical activity. Conclusions: In conclusion, childhood obesity can be tackled at the population level by education, prevention and sustainable interventions related to healthy nutrition practices and physical activity promotion.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0108 7468, GRID grid.192267.9, School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health and Medical Sciences, , Haramaya University, ; Po. Box. 235, Harar, Ethiopia
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1250 5688, GRID grid.7123.7, Department of Nursing and Midwifery, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, , Addis Ababa University, ; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                Contributors
                assefad100@gmail.com
                mandeshalemnesh@gmail.com
                ademisie@st.ug.edu.gh
                Journal
                BMC Obes
                BMC Obes
                BMC obesity
                BioMed Central (London )
                2052-9538
                1 June 2017
                1 June 2017
                2017
                : 4
                156
                10.1186/s40608-017-0156-2
                5452329
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

                ethiopia, dire dawa, school, children, obesity, overweight

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