Haemodialyzed (HD) patients have been found to have an increased bile cholesterol level and an increased saturation index in bile. These changes were markedly enhanced in the presence of a low-protein diet. To evaluate whether such changes influence the prevalence of cholelithiasis in patients with end-stage renal failure, real-time sonography was performed to detect the presence of gallstones (GS) in 54 HD (28 males, 26 females, mean age 52.4 ± 15.4 years) and 39 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD; 22 males, 17 females, mean age 59.1 ± 14.9 years) patients. No patient had diabetes. The patients’ charts were reviewed for the following data: age, sex, primary renal disease, obesity (20% above ideal weight), history suggestive of gallbladder disease or previous cholecystectomy, duration of dialysis, and serum cholesterol levels. Overall, cholelithiasis was documented in 12 of 93 (12.9%) patients, 7 HD and 5 CAPD. When comparing the factors outlined above, no significant difference was found between HD and CAPD patient groups, either with or without cholelithiasis. Gallbladder disease was asymptomatic in all except 1 patient who required cholecystectomy. Using a healthy control group consisting of local age- and sex-matched inhabitants, GS were found in 8 of 134 (6%) of them (p > 0.05). We conclude that the prevalence rate of GS in our dialysis population (HD and CAPD) is similar to that of a local general population following a western-style diet, irrespective of dialysis mode.