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      Effect of leg immersion in mild warm carbonated water on skin and muscle blood flow

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          Abstract

          Leg immersion in carbonated water improves endothelial‐mediated vasodilator function and decreases arterial stiffness but the mechanism underlying this effect remains poorly defined. We hypothesized that carbonated water immersion increases muscle blood flow. To test this hypothesis, 10 men (age 21 ± 0 years; mean ± SD) underwent lower leg immersion in tap or carbonated water at 38°C. We evaluated gastrocnemius muscle oxyhemoglobin concentration and tissue oxygenation index using near‐infrared spectroscopy, skin blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry, and popliteal artery (PA) blood flow by duplex ultrasound. Immersion in carbonated, but not tap water elevated PA (from 38 ± 14 to 83 ± 31 mL/min; <  0.001) and skin blood flow (by 779 ± 312%, <  0.001). In contrast, lower leg immersion elevated oxyhemoglobin concentration and tissue oxygenation index with no effect of carbonation ( =  0.529 and =  0.495). In addition, the change in PA blood flow in response to immersion in carbonated water correlated with those of skin blood flow ( =  0.005) but not oxyhemoglobin concentration ( =  0.765) and tissue oxygenation index ( =  0.136) while no relations was found for tap water immersion. These findings indicate that water carbonation has minimal effect on muscle blood flow. Furthermore, PA blood flow increases in response to lower leg immersion in carbonated water likely due to a large increase in skin blood flow.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Repeated sauna treatment improves vascular endothelial and cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure.

          The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which 60 degrees C sauna treatment improves cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). We have previously reported that repeated 60 degrees C sauna treatment improves hemodynamic data and clinical symptoms in patients with CHF. We hypothesized that the sauna restores endothelial function and then improves cardiac function. Twenty patients (62 plus minus 15 years) in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II or III CHF were treated in a dry sauna at 60 degrees C for 15 min and then kept on bed rest with a blanket for 30 min, daily for two weeks. Ten patients with CHF, matched for age, gender and NYHA functional class, were placed on a bed in a temperature-controlled (24 degrees C) room for 45 min as the nontreated group. Using high-resolution ultrasound, we measured the diameter of the brachial artery at rest and during reactive hyperemia (percent flow-mediated dilation, %FMD: endothelium-dependent dilation), as well as after sublingual administration of nitroglycerin (%NTG: endothelium-independent dilation). Cardiac function was evaluated by measuring the concentrations of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Clinical symptoms were improved in 17 of 20 patients after two weeks of sauna therapy. The %FMD after two-week sauna treatment significantly increased from the baseline value, whereas the %NTG-induced dilation did not. Concentrations of BNP after the two-week sauna treatment decreased significantly. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the change in %FMD and the percent improvement in BNP concentrations in the sauna-treated group. In contrast, none of the variables changed at the two-week interval in the nontreated group. Repeated sauna treatment improves vascular endothelial function, resulting in an improvement in cardiac function and clinical symptoms.
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            Near-infrared oximetry of the brain.

            Near-infrared (IR) light easily penetrates biological tissue, and the information offered by in vivo spectroscopy of cerebral oxygenation is detailed and comes with a high temporal resolution. Near-IR light spectroscopy (NIRS) reflects cerebral oxygenation during arterial hypotension, hypoxic hypoxaemia and hypo- and hypercapnia. As determined by dual-wavelength NIRS, the cerebral O2 saturation integrates the arterial O2 content and the cerebral perfusion, and as established for skeletal muscle, NIRS obtains information on tissue oxygenation and metabolism beyond that obtained by venous blood sampling. Caveats of cerebral NIRS include insufficient light shielding, optode displacement and a sample volume including muscle or the frontal sinus mucous membrane. The relative influence from the extracranial tissue is minimized by optode separation and correction for an extracranial sample volume, or both. The natural pigment melatonin and also water are of little influence to spectroscopic analysis of cerebral oxygenation, whereas bilirubin systematically lowers ScO2 and attenuates the detection of changes in cerebral oxygenation. By NIRS, reduction of cytochrome oxidase is demonstrated during hypoxic hypoxaemia and head-up tilt-induced arterial hypotension, but the changes are small. In the clinical setting, NIRS offers useful information in patients with both systemic and local cerebral circulatory impairment, for example, during cranial trauma, surgery on the cerebral arteries, orthostasis and acute heart failure. Whereas mapping of the brain circulation is needed for jugular venous sampling to reflect either global or local oxygenation, the determination of cerebral oxygenation by NIRS has the advantage of localized monitoring of the cerebral cortex.
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              Repeated thermal therapy improves impaired vascular endothelial function in patients with coronary risk factors.

               C Tei,  Y Otsuji,  K Takasaki (2001)
              We sought to determine whether sauna therapy, a thermal vasodilation therapy, improves endothelial function in patients with coronary risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smoking. Exposure to heat is widely used as a traditional therapy in many different cultures. We have recently found that repeated sauna therapy improves endothelial and cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure. Twenty-five men with at least one coronary risk factor (risk group: 38 +/- 7 years) and 10 healthy men without coronary risk factors (control group: 35 +/- 8 years) were enrolled. Patients in the risk group were treated with a 60 degrees C far infrared-ray dry sauna bath for 15 min and then kept in a bed covered with blankets for 30 min once a day for two weeks. To assess endothelial function, brachial artery diameter was measured at rest, during reactive hyperemia (flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation [%FMD]), again at rest and after sublingual nitroglycerin administration (endothelium-independent vasodilation [%NTG]) using high-resolution ultrasound. The %FMD was significantly impaired in the risk group compared with the control group (4.0 +/- 1.7% vs. 8.2 +/- 2.7%, p < 0.0001), while %NTG was similar (18.7 +/- 4.2% vs. 20.4 +/- 5.1%). Two weeks of sauna therapy significantly improved %FMD in the risk group (4.0 +/- 1.7% to 5.8 +/- 1.3%, p < 0.001). In contrast, %NTG did not change after two weeks of sauna therapy (18.7 +/- 4.2% to 18.1 +/- 4.1%). Repeated sauna treatment improves impaired vascular endothelial function in the setting of coronary risk factors, suggesting a therapeutic role for sauna treatment in patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ogoh@toyo.jp
                Journal
                Physiol Rep
                Physiol Rep
                10.1002/(ISSN)2051-817X
                PHY2
                physreports
                Physiological Reports
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2051-817X
                17 September 2018
                September 2018
                : 6
                : 18 ( doiID: 10.1002/phy2.2018.6.issue-18 )
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Biomedical Engineering Toyo University Kawagoe‐Shi Saitama Japan
                [ 2 ] Institute of Personal Health Care Products Research Kao co ltd. Tokyo Japan
                [ 3 ] Department of Anesthesia Rigshospitalet Copenhagen Denmark
                [ 4 ] Department of Biomedical Sciences University of Copenhagen Copenhagen Denmark
                [ 5 ] Department of Education Meisei University Tokyo Japan
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Shigehiko Ogoh, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe‐shi, Saitama 350‐8585, Japan.

                Tel: +81 049‐239‐1327

                Fax: +81 049‐231‐5026

                E‐mail: ogoh@ 123456toyo.jp

                Article
                PHY213859
                10.14814/phy2.13859
                6139710
                30221833
                © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 8, Words: 5012
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Shigehiko Ogoh
                Funded by: Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
                Award ID: 15H03098
                Categories
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                phy213859
                September 2018
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:version=5.4.7.1 mode:remove_FC converted:17.09.2018

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