Blog
About

0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Er:YAG Laser Irradiation Reduces Microbial Viability When Used in Combination with Irrigation with Sodium Hypochlorite, Chlorhexidine, and Hydrogen Peroxide

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser is used to treat periodontal disease; however, its effectiveness at killing oral bacteria is not well known. Furthermore, the compounding effect of the combination of a laser treatment and irrigation methods with antimicrobials on bacterial viability is yet to be determined. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the Er:YAG laser with irrigation using chlorhexidine (CHX), hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2), or sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the viability of oral bacteria. Three bacterial species were used in our study: Streptococcus gordonii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Bacteria were grown in an anaerobic chamber in brain heart infusion broth and incubated at 37 °C. Bacterial samples with an OD of 0.5 were irradiated with the Er:YAG laser at 2940 nm using a 400-µm Varian tip. The experiment was repeated four times using these parameters: 40 mJ, 40 Hz, and 1.6 W for 20 seconds with the 300 µs short pulse duration in contact mode. Treatment groups consisted of the following: (1) no treatment, (2) 0.5% H 2O 2 alone, (3) 0.5% NaOCl alone, (4) 0.03% CHX alone, (5) Er:YAG irradiation alone, (6) Er:YAG irradiation with 0.5% H 2O 2, (7) Er:YAG irradiation with 0.5% NaOCl, and (8) Er:YAG irradiation with 0.03% CHX. Microbial viability was determined through plating and colony counts and calculated into CFU/ml. Statistical analysis was done using a two-tailed paired t-test. The use of the Er:YAG laser alone failed to show statistically significant antibacterial activity against any of bacteria. The most effective mono-treatment with irrigation solutions for all three bacteria were 0.5% H 2O 2 and 0.5% NaOCl ( p < 0.001 for each solution). Irrigation with 0.03% CHX was most effective against F. nucleatum ( p < 0.01) and less against P. gingivalis and S. gordonii and showed the least antibacterial action alone but improved significantly in combination therapy ( p < 0.05). The combined treatment with the Er:YAG showed the greatest and most significant improvement in the reduction of bacterial viability compared to any other treatment group ( p < 0.05 for each combined treatment). Irradiation with the Er:YAG laser with the addition of 0.5% H 2O 2, 0.5% NaOCl, or 0.03% CHX under a short working time (20 s) resulted in a significant reduction of bacterial viability for all three bacterial species compared with any single treatment option. The combination of irradiation with the Er:YAG laser with the addition of 0.5% H 2O 2, 0.5% NaOCl, or 0.03% CHX resulted in a larger reduction of bacterial survival when compared to monotherapies with antimicrobial solutions or laser. The combination of the Er:YAG laser with a low concentration irrigant solution of 0.5% H 2O 2, 0.5% NaOCl, or 0.03% CHX could be an effective treatment protocol for the reduction of periodontal pathogens and thus suitable treatment for non-surgical periodontal therapy.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 48

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Oxy-radicals and related species: their formation, lifetimes, and reactions.

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Biofilm-specific antibiotic tolerance and resistance.

             I C Olsen (2015)
            Biofilms are heterogeneous structures composed of bacterial cells surrounded by a matrix and attached to solid surfaces. The bacteria here are 100 to 1,000 times more tolerant to antimicrobials than corresponding planktonic cells. Biofilms can be difficult to eradicate when they cause biofilm-related diseases, e.g., implant infections, cystic fibrosis, urinary tract infections, and periodontal diseases. A number of phenotypic features of the biofilm can be involved in biofilm-specific tolerance and resistance. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. The current review deals with both phenotypic and molecular mechanisms of biofilm-specific antibiotic tolerance and resistance.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Fusobacterium nucleatum in periodontal health and disease.

              The pathogenesis of periodontitis involves the interplay of microbiota present in the subgingival plaque and the host responses. Inflammation and destruction of periodontal tissues are considered to result from the response of a susceptible host to a microbial biofilm containing gram-negative pathogens. Antimicrobial peptides are important contributors to maintaining the balance between health and disease in this complex environment. These include several salivary antimicrobial peptides such as β-defensins expressed in the epithelium and LL-37 expressed in both epithelium and neutrophils. Among gram-negative bacteria implicated in periodontal diseases, Fusobacterium nucleatum, is one of the most interesting. This review will focus on expression, function, regulation and functional efficacy of antimicrobial peptides against F. nucleatum. We are looking for how the presence of F. nucleatum induces secretion of peptides which have an impact on host cells and modulate immune response.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Microorganisms
                Microorganisms
                microorganisms
                Microorganisms
                MDPI
                2076-2607
                25 November 2019
                December 2019
                : 7
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Dentistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA; jgolobdeeb@ 123456vcu.edu (J.G.D.); smithjl47@ 123456mymail.vcu.edu (J.S.)
                [2 ]Philips Institute, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA; belvinbr@ 123456vcu.edu (B.R.B.); jplewis@ 123456vcu.edu (J.L.)
                [3 ]Department of Oral Surgery, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-425 Wroclaw, Poland
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: kgl@ 123456periocare.pl
                Article
                microorganisms-07-00612
                10.3390/microorganisms7120612
                6955693
                31775309
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article