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      Upregulation of MicroRNA-210 Regulates Renal Angiogenesis Mediated by Activation of VEGF Signaling Pathway under Ischemia/Perfusion Injury in vivo and in vitro

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          Abstract

          Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding, small RNAs that regulate gene expression and function, but little is known about regulation of miRNAs in the kidneys under normal or pathologic conditions. Here, we sought to investigate the potential involvement of miRNAs in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and angiogenesis and to define some of the miRNAs possibly associated with renal angiogenesis. Methods and Results: Male Balb/c mice were subjected to a standard renal I/R. CD31 immunostaining indicated a significant increase of microvessels in the ischemic region. VEGF and VEGFR2 expression were increased in renal I/R at both the mRNA and protein levels which were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. More importantly, 76 microRNAs exhibited more than 2-fold changes using Agilent microRNA microarray, which contains downregulation of 40 miRNAs and upregulation of 36 miRNAs. Upregulation of miR-210 was confirmed by qRT-PCR with prominent changes at 4 and 24 h after reperfusion. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-210 in HUVEC-12 cells enhances VEGF and VEGFR2 expression and promotes angiogenesis on Matrigel in vitro. Conclusion: These findings suggest miR-210 may be involved in targeting the VEGF signaling pathway to regulate angiogenesis after renal I/R injury, which provides novel insights into the angiogenesis mechanism of renal I/R injury.

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          Most cited references 25

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          miR-126 regulates angiogenic signaling and vascular integrity.

          Precise regulation of the formation, maintenance, and remodeling of the vasculature is required for normal development, tissue response to injury, and tumor progression. How specific microRNAs intersect with and modulate angiogenic signaling cascades is unknown. Here, we identified microRNAs that were enriched in endothelial cells derived from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and in developing mouse embryos. We found that miR-126 regulated the response of endothelial cells to VEGF. Additionally, knockdown of miR-126 in zebrafish resulted in loss of vascular integrity and hemorrhage during embryonic development. miR-126 functioned in part by directly repressing negative regulators of the VEGF pathway, including the Sprouty-related protein SPRED1 and phosphoinositol-3 kinase regulatory subunit 2 (PIK3R2/p85-beta). Increased expression of Spred1 or inhibition of VEGF signaling in zebrafish resulted in defects similar to miR-126 knockdown. These findings illustrate that a single miRNA can regulate vascular integrity and angiogenesis, providing a new target for modulating vascular formation and function.
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            MicroRNA-92a controls angiogenesis and functional recovery of ischemic tissues in mice.

            MicroRNAs (miRs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to target messenger RNAs (mRNAs), leading to translational repression or degradation. Here, we show that the miR-17approximately92 cluster is highly expressed in human endothelial cells and that miR-92a, a component of this cluster, controls the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Forced overexpression of miR-92a in endothelial cells blocked angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. In mouse models of limb ischemia and myocardial infarction, systemic administration of an antagomir designed to inhibit miR-92a led to enhanced blood vessel growth and functional recovery of damaged tissue. MiR-92a appears to target mRNAs corresponding to several proangiogenic proteins, including the integrin subunit alpha5. Thus, miR-92a may serve as a valuable therapeutic target in the setting of ischemic disease.
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              MicroRNA-210 modulates endothelial cell response to hypoxia and inhibits the receptor tyrosine kinase ligand Ephrin-A3.

              MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-protein-coding RNAs that function as negative gene expression regulators. In the present study, we investigated miRNAs role in endothelial cell response to hypoxia. We found that the expression of miR-210 progressively increased upon exposure to hypoxia. miR-210 overexpression in normoxic endothelial cells stimulated the formation of capillary-like structures on Matrigel and vascular endothelial growth factor-driven cell migration. Conversely, miR-210 blockade via anti-miRNA transfection inhibited the formation of capillary-like structures stimulated by hypoxia and decreased cell migration in response to vascular endothelial growth factor. miR-210 overexpression did not affect endothelial cell growth in both normoxia and hypoxia. However, anti-miR-210 transfection inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis, in both normoxia and hypoxia. We determined that one relevant target of miR-210 in hypoxia was Ephrin-A3 since miR-210 was necessary and sufficient to down-modulate its expression. Moreover, luciferase reporter assays showed that Ephrin-A3 was a direct target of miR-210. Ephrin-A3 modulation by miR-210 had significant functional consequences; indeed, the expression of an Ephrin-A3 allele that is not targeted by miR-210 prevented miR-210-mediated stimulation of both tubulogenesis and chemotaxis. We conclude that miR-210 up-regulation is a crucial element of endothelial cell response to hypoxia, affecting cell survival, migration, and differentiation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2012
                April 2012
                25 November 2011
                : 35
                : 3
                : 182-191
                Affiliations
                Institutes of aUrology and bCerebrovascular Diseases, Nanchang University, and cIntensive Care Unit, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, and dInstitute of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-tong University, Shanghai, China
                Author notes
                *Dr. Yang Wang, Institute of Urology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, Institute of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-tong University, Shanghai 200233 (China), Tel. +86 791 8869 2527, E-Mail wangy63cn@126.com, Dr. Zhi-Feng Deng, Institute of Cerebrovascular Diseases, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China), E-Mail dengzf63@126.com
                Article
                331054 Kidney Blood Press Res 2012;35:182–191
                10.1159/000331054
                22123256
                © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                MicroRNA, Angiogenesis, Ischemia/reperfusion

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