The first record of the genus Rhopalosolen Fott (Chlorophyta) for Brazil is presented
here. Taxonomic studies on phytotelm algae are, in general, scarce, but especially
are so in semi-arid regions such as the Caatinga. Here, we sampled 60 bromeliads in
the Itaberaba’s municipality, Bahia state, and we identified Rhopalosolen cylindricus,
a green algae species not previously recorded for Brazil. Additionally, our data provide
an expansion on the known distribution of the species and their morphological and
reproductive aspects as well as microhabitat conditions and frequency of occurrence.