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      Spectroscopic characterization of lithium thiophosphates by XPS and XAS – a model to help monitor interfacial reactions in all-solid-state batteries

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          Shift of binding energies upon depolymerization of superionic lithium thiophosphates.


          Inspired by reports of redox active interphases in all-solid-state batteries employing fast conducting lithium thiophosphate solid-state electrolytes, we investigated the compositional depolymerization of interconnected PS 4 tetrahedra in (Li 2S) x(P 2S 5) 100−x glasses (50 < x < 80) by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Based on the observed energy shifts with composition, we present a structural model of the three different bonding types describing the structures of either crystalline or amorphous thiophosphates. This model and reference data characterizes amorphous thiophosphates based on their inter-tetrahedral connectivity and helps to distinguish malign decomposition reactions from reversible redox reactions at the cathode active material/solid-state electrolyte interface. This work highlights the importance of a combined analytical approach and appropriate reference compounds to elucidate the interface reactions in all-solid-state battery systems.

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          Most cited references 70

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          ATHENA, ARTEMIS, HEPHAESTUS: data analysis for X-ray absorption spectroscopy using IFEFFIT.

           B Ravel,  M Newville (2005)
          A software package for the analysis of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data is presented. This package is based on the IFEFFIT library of numerical and XAS algorithms and is written in the Perl programming language using the Perl/Tk graphics toolkit. The programs described here are: (i) ATHENA, a program for XAS data processing, (ii) ARTEMIS, a program for EXAFS data analysis using theoretical standards from FEFF and (iii) HEPHAESTUS, a collection of beamline utilities based on tables of atomic absorption data. These programs enable high-quality data analysis that is accessible to novices while still powerful enough to meet the demands of an expert practitioner. The programs run on all major computer platforms and are freely available under the terms of a free software license.
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            The Li-ion rechargeable battery: a perspective.

            Each cell of a battery stores electrical energy as chemical energy in two electrodes, a reductant (anode) and an oxidant (cathode), separated by an electrolyte that transfers the ionic component of the chemical reaction inside the cell and forces the electronic component outside the battery. The output on discharge is an external electronic current I at a voltage V for a time Δt. The chemical reaction of a rechargeable battery must be reversible on the application of a charging I and V. Critical parameters of a rechargeable battery are safety, density of energy that can be stored at a specific power input and retrieved at a specific power output, cycle and shelf life, storage efficiency, and cost of fabrication. Conventional ambient-temperature rechargeable batteries have solid electrodes and a liquid electrolyte. The positive electrode (cathode) consists of a host framework into which the mobile (working) cation is inserted reversibly over a finite solid-solution range. The solid-solution range, which is reduced at higher current by the rate of transfer of the working ion across electrode/electrolyte interfaces and within a host, limits the amount of charge per electrode formula unit that can be transferred over the time Δt = Δt(I). Moreover, the difference between energies of the LUMO and the HOMO of the electrolyte, i.e., electrolyte window, determines the maximum voltage for a long shelf and cycle life. The maximum stable voltage with an aqueous electrolyte is 1.5 V; the Li-ion rechargeable battery uses an organic electrolyte with a larger window, which increase the density of stored energy for a given Δt. Anode or cathode electrochemical potentials outside the electrolyte window can increase V, but they require formation of a passivating surface layer that must be permeable to Li(+) and capable of adapting rapidly to the changing electrode surface area as the electrode changes volume during cycling. A passivating surface layer adds to the impedance of the Li(+) transfer across the electrode/electrolyte interface and lowers the cycle life of a battery cell. Moreover, formation of a passivation layer on the anode robs Li from the cathode irreversibly on an initial charge, further lowering the reversible Δt. These problems plus the cost of quality control of manufacturing plague development of Li-ion rechargeable batteries that can compete with the internal combustion engine for powering electric cars and that can provide the needed low-cost storage of electrical energy generated by renewable wind and/or solar energy. Chemists are contributing to incremental improvements of the conventional strategy by investigating and controlling electrode passivation layers, improving the rate of Li(+) transfer across electrode/electrolyte interfaces, identifying electrolytes with larger windows while retaining a Li(+) conductivity σ(Li) > 10(-3) S cm(-1), synthesizing electrode morphologies that reduce the size of the active particles while pinning them on current collectors of large surface area accessible by the electrolyte, lowering the cost of cell fabrication, designing displacement-reaction anodes of higher capacity that allow a safe, fast charge, and designing alternative cathode hosts. However, new strategies are needed for batteries that go beyond powering hand-held devices, such as using electrode hosts with two-electron redox centers; replacing the cathode hosts by materials that undergo displacement reactions (e.g. sulfur) by liquid cathodes that may contain flow-through redox molecules, or by catalysts for air cathodes; and developing a Li(+) solid electrolyte separator membrane that allows an organic and aqueous liquid electrolyte on the anode and cathode sides, respectively. Opportunities exist for the chemist to bring together oxide and polymer or graphene chemistry in imaginative morphologies.
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              A lithium superionic conductor.

              Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).

                Author and article information

                Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
                Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                : 20
                : 30
                : 20088-20095
                [1 ]Institute of Physical Chemistry
                [2 ]Justus-Liebig-University Giessen
                [3 ]D-35392 Giessen
                [4 ]Germany
                [5 ]Leverhulme Research Centre for Functional Materials Design
                [6 ]The Materials Innovation Factory
                [7 ]Department of Chemistry
                [8 ]University of Liverpool
                [9 ]Liverpool
                [10 ]Technical University of Munich
                [11 ]D-85748 Garching
                [12 ]Diamond Light Source
                [13 ]Harwell Science and Innovation Campus
                [14 ]Didcot
                [15 ]UK
                [16 ]BELLA – Batteries and Electrochemistry Laboratory
                © 2018


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