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      The Antiseptic Octenidine Inhibits Langerhans Cell Activation and Modulates Cytokine Expression upon Superficial Wounding with Tape Stripping

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          Abstract

          Ideal agents for the topical treatment of skin wounds should have antimicrobial efficacy without negative influence on wound healing. Octenidine (OCT) has become a widely used antiseptic in professional wound care, but its influence on several components of the wound healing process remains unclear. In the present study, we have used a superficial wound model using tape stripping on human full-thickness skin ex vivo to investigate the influence of OCT on epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) and cytokine secretion pattern of skin cells during wound healing in a model without disruption of the normal skin structure. Histological and immunofluorescence studies showed that OCT neither altered human skin architecture nor the viability of skin cells upon 48 hours of culture in unwounded or wounded skin. The epidermis of explants and LCs remained morphologically intact throughout the whole culture period upon OCT treatment. OCT inhibited the upregulation of the maturation marker CD83 on LCs and prevented their emigration in wounded skin. Furthermore, OCT reduced both pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators (IL-8, IL-33, and IL-10), while angiogenesis and growth factor mediators (VEGF and TGF- β1) remained unchanged in skin explant cultures. Our data provide novel insights into the host response to OCT in the biologically relevant environment of viable human (wounded) skin.

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          Most cited references 58

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          Biology of interleukin-10.

          Interleukin (IL)-10 is the most important cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties besides TGF-β and IL-35. It is produced by activated immune cells, in particular monocytes/macrophages and T cell subsets including Tr1, Treg, and Th1 cells. IL-10 acts through a transmembrane receptor complex, which is composed of IL-10R1 and IL-10R2, and regulates the functions of many different immune cells. In monocytes/macrophages, IL-10 diminishes the production of inflammatory mediators and inhibits antigen presentation, although it enhances their uptake of antigens. Additionally, IL-10 plays an important role in the biology of B cells and T cells. The special physiological relevance of this cytokine lies in the prevention and limitation of over-whelming specific and unspecific immune reactions and, in consequence, of tissue damage. At the same time, IL-10 strengthens the "scavenger"-function and contributes to induced tolerance. This review provides an overview about the cellular sources, molecular mechanisms, effects, and biological role of IL-10. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Keratinocyte-fibroblast interactions in wound healing.

            Cutaneous tissue repair aims at restoring the barrier function of the skin. To achieve this, defects need to be replaced by granulation tissue to form new connective tissue, and epithelial wound closure is required to restore the physical barrier. Different wound-healing phases are recognized, starting with an inflammation-dominated early phase giving way to granulation tissue build-up and scar remodeling after epithelial wound closure has been achieved. In the granulation tissue, mesenchymal cells are maximally activated, cells proliferate, and synthesize huge amounts of extracellular matrix. Epithelial cells also proliferate and migrate over the provisional matrix of the underlying granulation tissue, eventually closing the defect. This review focuses on the role of keratinocyte-fibroblast interactions in the wound-healing process. There is ample evidence that keratinocytes stimulate fibroblasts to synthesize growth factors, which in turn will stimulate keratinocyte proliferation in a double paracrine manner. Moreover, fibroblasts can acquire a myofibroblast phenotype under the control of keratinocytes. This depends on a finely tuned balance between a proinflammatory or a transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-dominated environment. As the phenotype of fibroblasts from different tissues or body sites becomes better defined, we may understand their individual contribution in wound healing in more detail and possibly explain different clinical outcomes.
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              Origin, homeostasis and function of Langerhans cells and other langerin-expressing dendritic cells.

              Langerhans cells (LCs) are a specialized subset of dendritic cells (DCs) that populate the epidermal layer of the skin. Langerin is a lectin that serves as a valuable marker for LCs in mice and humans. In recent years, new mouse models have led to the identification of other langerin(+) DC subsets that are not present in the epidermis, including a subset of DCs that is found in most non-lymphoid tissues. In this Review we describe new developments in the understanding of the biology of LCs and other langerin(+) DCs and discuss the challenges that remain in identifying the role of different DC subsets in tissue immunity.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Immunol Res
                J Immunol Res
                JIR
                Journal of Immunology Research
                Hindawi
                2314-8861
                2314-7156
                2019
                3 March 2019
                : 2019
                Affiliations
                1Department of Dermatology, Division of Immunology, Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
                2Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Austria
                3Department of Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery, St. Josef Hospital, Vienna, Austria
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Xiao-Feng Yang

                Article
                10.1155/2019/5143635
                6421797
                Copyright © 2019 Nenad Nikolić et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Medical Scientific Fund of the Mayor of the City of Vienna
                Award ID: 18045
                Funded by: Austrian Science Fund
                Award ID: W1248-B30
                Categories
                Research Article

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