In renal transplant patients, weight gain generally increases after renal transplantation, which will be influenced by improved appetite and a reversal of the uremic state. However, at least in the early posttransplant period, the increase in body weight is mainly due to an increase in body fat mass. This phenomenon may be partly due to relatively high doses of steroids in the early period after renal transplantation, possibly mediated by their inhibiting effect on lipid peroxidation, but also appears to be related to physical inactivity. The increase in body fat mass may contribute to posttransplant hyperlipidemia, which is improved but not completely normalized by dietary intervention. Current dietary recommendations in stable renal transplant patients do not generally differ from those of the general population, although intense dietary counselling may be indicated in patients with excessive posttransplant weight gain. The effect of supervised exercise training on body composition is currently under investigation.