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      Acquisition of the physiological quality of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds during maturation under the influence of the maternal environment

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          Abstract

          The scarcity of information on the maturation physiology of the peanut seed ( Arachis hypogaea L.; Virgínia group) makes harvesting high quality seeds a challenge for the seed industry. During two consecutive crop seasons, we studied the acquisition of physiological quality of peanut seeds during maturation in tropical conditions. We bring new insights about the period of late maturation of seeds and the influence of the maternal environment on physiological quality. We monitored water content, dry weight, ability of germination, desiccation tolerance, vigor and longevity. In addition, we monitored temperature and precipitation throughout plant growth. We demonstrate that the physiological quality of peanut seeds is acquired during development, with a maximum between 57 and 76 days after flowering in the late stage of maturation. This final period represents about 25% of the development, considered the best time to harvest peanut seeds with the highest quality. Our findings also support the idea that the adequate proportion of rainfall and thermal sum in the maternal environment are factors that favor the acquisition of peanut seed longevity.

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          Most cited references 47

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          In situ immune response and mechanisms of cell damage in central nervous system of fatal cases microcephaly by Zika virus

          Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently caused a pandemic disease, and many cases of ZIKV infection in pregnant women resulted in abortion, stillbirth, deaths and congenital defects including microcephaly, which now has been proposed as ZIKV congenital syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the in situ immune response profile and mechanisms of neuronal cell damage in fatal Zika microcephaly cases. Brain tissue samples were collected from 15 cases, including 10 microcephalic ZIKV-positive neonates with fatal outcome and five neonatal control flavivirus-negative neonates that died due to other causes, but with preserved central nervous system (CNS) architecture. In microcephaly cases, the histopathological features of the tissue samples were characterized in three CNS areas (meninges, perivascular space, and parenchyma). The changes found were mainly calcification, necrosis, neuronophagy, gliosis, microglial nodules, and inflammatory infiltration of mononuclear cells. The in situ immune response against ZIKV in the CNS of newborns is complex. Despite the predominant expression of Th2 cytokines, other cytokines such as Th1, Th17, Treg, Th9, and Th22 are involved to a lesser extent, but are still likely to participate in the immunopathogenic mechanisms of neural disease in fatal cases of microcephaly caused by ZIKV.
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            Seed vigour and crop establishment: extending performance beyond adaptation

            Seeds are central to crop production, human nutrition, and food security. A key component of the performance of crop seeds is the complex trait of seed vigour. Crop yield and resource use efficiency depend on successful plant establishment in the field, and it is the vigour of seeds that defines their ability to germinate and establish seedlings rapidly, uniformly, and robustly across diverse environmental conditions. Improving vigour to enhance the critical and yield-defining stage of crop establishment remains a primary objective of the agricultural industry and the seed/breeding companies that support it. Our knowledge of the regulation of seed germination has developed greatly in recent times, yet understanding of the basis of variation in vigour and therefore seed performance during the establishment of crops remains limited. Here we consider seed vigour at an ecophysiological, molecular, and biomechanical level. We discuss how some seed characteristics that serve as adaptive responses to the natural environment are not suitable for agriculture. Past domestication has provided incremental improvements, but further actively directed change is required to produce seeds with the characteristics required both now and in the future. We discuss ways in which basic plant science could be applied to enhance seed performance in crop production.
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              GERMINATOR: a software package for high-throughput scoring and curve fitting of Arabidopsis seed germination.

              Over the past few decades seed physiology research has contributed to many important scientific discoveries and has provided valuable tools for the production of high quality seeds. An important instrument for this type of research is the accurate quantification of germination; however gathering cumulative germination data is a very laborious task that is often prohibitive to the execution of large experiments. In this paper we present the germinator package: a simple, highly cost-efficient and flexible procedure for high-throughput automatic scoring and evaluation of germination that can be implemented without the use of complex robotics. The germinator package contains three modules: (i) design of experimental setup with various options to replicate and randomize samples; (ii) automatic scoring of germination based on the color contrast between the protruding radicle and seed coat on a single image; and (iii) curve fitting of cumulative germination data and the extraction, recap and visualization of the various germination parameters. The curve-fitting module enables analysis of general cumulative germination data and can be used for all plant species. We show that the automatic scoring system works for Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica spp. seeds, but is likely to be applicable to other species, as well. In this paper we show the accuracy, reproducibility and flexibility of the germinator package. We have successfully applied it to evaluate natural variation for salt tolerance in a large population of recombinant inbred lines and were able to identify several quantitative trait loci for salt tolerance. Germinator is a low-cost package that allows the monitoring of several thousands of germination tests, several times a day by a single person.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Data curationRole: InvestigationRole: Methodology
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curation
                Role: Visualization
                Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                3 May 2021
                2021
                : 16
                : 5
                Affiliations
                Crop Production Department, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil
                Brigham Young University, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                ‡ MMPS, CACC and JN also contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                PONE-D-21-02258
                10.1371/journal.pone.0250293
                8092650
                33939737
                © 2021 Okada et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Pages: 15
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: National Council for Scientific and Technological Development
                Award ID: 130193 / 2017-8
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: National Council for Scientific and Technological Development
                Award ID: 142236 / 2020-9
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: National Council for Scientific and Technological Development
                Award ID: 309718 / 2018-0
                Award Recipient :
                This study was funded by: National Council for Scientific and Technological Development 130193 / 2017-8 for M.H. Okada, 142236 / 2020-9 for G.R.F. Oliveira and 309718 / 2018-0 for E.A. Amaral da Silva.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Anatomy
                Seeds
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Legumes
                Peanut
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Crop Science
                Crops
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Plant Physiology
                Plant Reproduction
                Seed Germination
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Physiology
                Plant Reproduction
                Seed Germination
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Plant Physiology
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Physiology
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Crop Science
                Crops
                Soybeans
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Seedlings
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Fruits
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

                Uncategorized

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