The scarcity of information on the maturation physiology of the peanut seed ( Arachis hypogaea L.; Virgínia group) makes harvesting high quality seeds a challenge for the seed industry. During two consecutive crop seasons, we studied the acquisition of physiological quality of peanut seeds during maturation in tropical conditions. We bring new insights about the period of late maturation of seeds and the influence of the maternal environment on physiological quality. We monitored water content, dry weight, ability of germination, desiccation tolerance, vigor and longevity. In addition, we monitored temperature and precipitation throughout plant growth. We demonstrate that the physiological quality of peanut seeds is acquired during development, with a maximum between 57 and 76 days after flowering in the late stage of maturation. This final period represents about 25% of the development, considered the best time to harvest peanut seeds with the highest quality. Our findings also support the idea that the adequate proportion of rainfall and thermal sum in the maternal environment are factors that favor the acquisition of peanut seed longevity.