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      Effect of increased convective clearance by on-line hemodiafiltration on all cause and cardiovascular mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients – the Dutch CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST): rationale and design of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN38365125]

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          Abstract

          Background

          The high incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) is related to the accumulation of uremic toxins in the middle and large-middle molecular weight range. As online hemodiafiltration (HDF) removes these molecules more effectively than standard hemodialysis (HD), it has been suggested that online HDF improves survival and cardiovascular outcome. Thus far, no conclusive data of HDF on target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are available. Therefore, the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST) has been initiated.

          Methods

          CONTRAST is a Dutch multi-center randomised controlled trial. In this trial, approximately 800 chronic hemodialysis patients will be randomised between online HDF and low-flux HD, and followed for three years. The primary endpoint is all cause mortality. The main secondary outcome variables are fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events.

          Conclusion

          The study is designed to provide conclusive evidence whether online HDF leads to a lower mortality and less cardiovascular events as compared to standard HD.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Recommendations for quantitation of the left ventricle by two-dimensional echocardiography. American Society of Echocardiography Committee on Standards, Subcommittee on Quantitation of Two-Dimensional Echocardiograms.

          We have presented recommendations for the optimum acquisition of quantitative two-dimensional data in the current echocardiographic environment. It is likely that advances in imaging may enhance or supplement these approaches. For example, three-dimensional reconstruction methods may greatly augment the accuracy of volume determination if they become more efficient. The development of three-dimensional methods will depend in turn on vastly improved transthoracic resolution similar to that now obtainable by transesophageal echocardiography. Better resolution will also make the use of more direct methods of measuring myocardial mass practical. For example, if the epicardium were well resolved in the long-axis apical views, the myocardial shell volume could be measured directly by the biplane method of discs rather than extrapolating myocardial thickness from a single short-axis view. At present, it is our opinion that current technology justifies the clinical use of the quantitative two-dimensional methods described in this article. When technically feasible, and if resources permit, we recommend the routine reporting of left ventricular ejection fraction, diastolic volume, mass, and wall motion score.
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            The elephant in uremia: oxidant stress as a unifying concept of cardiovascular disease in uremia.

            Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in uremic patients. In large cross-sectional studies of dialysis patients, traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia have been found to have low predictive power, while markers of inflammation and malnutrition are highly correlated with cardiovascular mortality. However, the pathophysiology of the disease process that links uremia, inflammation, and malnutrition with increased cardiovascular complications is not well understood. We hereby propose the hypothesis that increased oxidative stress and its sequalae is a major contributor to increased atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality found in uremia. This hypothesis is based on studies that conclusively demonstrate an increased oxidative burden in uremic patients, before and particularly after renal replacement therapies, as evidenced by higher concentrations of multiple biomarkers of oxidative stress. This hypothesis also provides a framework to explain the link that activated phagocytes provide between oxidative stress and inflammation (from infectious and non-infections causes) and the synergistic role that malnutrition (as reflected by low concentrations of albumin and/or antioxidants) contributes to the increased burden of cardiovascular disease in uremia. We further propose that retained uremic solutes such as beta-2 microglobulin, advanced glycosylated end products (AGE), cysteine, and homocysteine, which are substrates for oxidative injury, further contribute to the pro-atherogenic milieu of uremia. Dialytic therapy, which acts to reduce the concentration of oxidized substrates, improves the redox balance. However, processes related to dialytic therapy, such as the prolonged use of catheters for vascular access and the use of bioincompatible dialysis membranes, can contribute to a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative state and thus to a pro-atherogenic state. Anti-oxidative therapeutic strategies for patients with uremia are in their very early stages; nonetheless, early studies demonstrate the potential for significant efficacy in reducing cardiovascular complications.
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              Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risks in chronic hemodialysis patients.

              Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death among chronic hemodialysis patients, yet the risk factors for these events have not been well established. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between several traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and the presence or history of cardiovascular events in 936 hemodialysis patients enrolled in the baseline phase of the Hemodialysis Study sponsored by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The adjusted odds ratios for each of the selected risk factors were estimated using a multivariable logistic regression model, controlling for the remaining risk factors, clinical center, and years on dialysis. Forty percent of the patients had coronary heart disease. Nineteen percent had cerebrovascular disease, and 23% had peripheral vascular disease. As expected, diabetes and smoking were strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases. Increasing age was also an important contributor, especially in the group less than 55 years and in nondiabetic patients. Black race was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases than non-blacks. Interestingly, neither serum total cholesterol nor predialysis systolic blood pressure was associated with coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral vascular disease. Further estimation of the coronary risks in our cohort using the Framingham coronary point score suggests that traditional risk factors are inadequate predictors of coronary heart disease in hemodialysis patients. Some of the traditional coronary risk factors in the general population appear to be also applicable to the hemodialysis population, while other factors did not correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in this cross-sectional study. Nontraditional risk factors, including the uremic milieu and perhaps the hemodialysis procedure itself, are likely to be contributory. Further studies are necessary to define the cardiovascular risk factors in order to devise preventive and interventional strategies for the chronic hemodialysis population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Curr Control Trials Cardiovasc Med
                Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine
                BioMed Central
                1468-6708
                1468-6694
                2005
                20 May 2005
                : 6
                : 1
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
                [2 ]Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Rijnmond-Zuid Medical Center, Clara Location, Olympiaweg 350, 3078 HT Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [4 ]Department of Nephrology, VU Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [5 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Center Alkmaar, Wilhelminalaan 12, 1815 JD Alkmaar, The Netherlands
                [6 ]Center for Biostatistics, Utrecht University, Padualaan 14, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands
                Article
                1468-6708-6-8
                10.1186/1468-6708-6-8
                1156925
                15907201
                Copyright © 2005 Penne et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Research

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