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      Effect of increased convective clearance by on-line hemodiafiltration on all cause and cardiovascular mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients – the Dutch CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST): rationale and design of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN38365125]

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          Abstract

          Background

          The high incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) is related to the accumulation of uremic toxins in the middle and large-middle molecular weight range. As online hemodiafiltration (HDF) removes these molecules more effectively than standard hemodialysis (HD), it has been suggested that online HDF improves survival and cardiovascular outcome. Thus far, no conclusive data of HDF on target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are available. Therefore, the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST) has been initiated.

          Methods

          CONTRAST is a Dutch multi-center randomised controlled trial. In this trial, approximately 800 chronic hemodialysis patients will be randomised between online HDF and low-flux HD, and followed for three years. The primary endpoint is all cause mortality. The main secondary outcome variables are fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events.

          Conclusion

          The study is designed to provide conclusive evidence whether online HDF leads to a lower mortality and less cardiovascular events as compared to standard HD.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Recommendations for quantitation of the left ventricle by two-dimensional echocardiography. American Society of Echocardiography Committee on Standards, Subcommittee on Quantitation of Two-Dimensional Echocardiograms.

          We have presented recommendations for the optimum acquisition of quantitative two-dimensional data in the current echocardiographic environment. It is likely that advances in imaging may enhance or supplement these approaches. For example, three-dimensional reconstruction methods may greatly augment the accuracy of volume determination if they become more efficient. The development of three-dimensional methods will depend in turn on vastly improved transthoracic resolution similar to that now obtainable by transesophageal echocardiography. Better resolution will also make the use of more direct methods of measuring myocardial mass practical. For example, if the epicardium were well resolved in the long-axis apical views, the myocardial shell volume could be measured directly by the biplane method of discs rather than extrapolating myocardial thickness from a single short-axis view. At present, it is our opinion that current technology justifies the clinical use of the quantitative two-dimensional methods described in this article. When technically feasible, and if resources permit, we recommend the routine reporting of left ventricular ejection fraction, diastolic volume, mass, and wall motion score.
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            Coronary-artery calcification in young adults with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing dialysis.

            Cardiovascular disease is common in older adults with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing regular dialysis, but little is known about the prevalence and extent of cardiovascular disease in children and young adults with end-stage renal disease. We used electron-beam computed tomography (CT) to screen for coronary-artery calcification in 39 young patients with end-stage renal disease who were undergoing dialysis (mean [+/-SD] age, 19+/-7 years; range, 7 to 30) and 60 normal subjects 20 to 30 years of age. In those with evidence of calcification on CT scanning, we determined its extent. The results were correlated with the patients' clinical characteristics, serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations, and other biochemical variables. None of the 23 patients who were younger than 20 years of age had evidence of coronary-artery calcification, but it was present in 14 of the 16 patients who were 20 to 30 years old. Among those with calcification, the mean calcification score was 1157+/-1996, and the median score was 297. By contrast, only 3 of the 60 normal subjects had calcification. As compared with the patients without coronary-artery calcification, those with calcification were older (26+/-3 vs. 15+/-5 years, P<0.001) and had been undergoing dialysis for a longer period (14+/-5 vs. 4+/-4 years, P< 0.001). The mean serum phosphorus concentration, the mean calcium-phosphorus ion product in serum, and the daily intake of calcium were higher among the patients with coronary-artery calcification. Among 10 patients with calcification who underwent follow-up CT scanning, the calcification score nearly doubled (from 125+/-104 to 249+/-216, P=0.02) over a mean period of 20+/-3 months. Coronary-artery calcification is common and progressive in young adults with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing dialysis.
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              Impact of aortic stiffness on survival in end-stage renal disease.

              Damage to large arteries is a major factor in the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Increased arterial stiffness and intima-media thickness, together with increased pulse pressure, are the principal arterial alterations. Whether increased aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV), a classic marker of increased arterial stiffness, may predict all-cause and/or cardiovascular mortality has never been investigated. A cohort of 241 patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis was studied between April 1987 and April 1998. The mean duration of follow-up was 72+/-41 months (mean+/-SD). Mean age at entry was 51.5+/-16.3 years. Seventy-three deaths occurred, including 48 cardiovascular and 25 noncardiovascular fatal events. At entry, together with standard clinical and biochemical analyses, patients underwent echocardiography and aortic PWV measured by Doppler ultrasonography. On the basis of Cox analyses, 2 factors emerged as predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: age and aortic PWV. Hemoglobin and low diastolic pressure interfered to a smaller extent. After adjustment for all the confounding factors, an OR for PWV >12. 0 versus <9.4 m/s was 5.4 (95% CI, 2.4 to 11.9) for all-cause mortality and 5.9 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5) for cardiovascular mortality. For each PWV increase of 1 m/s in our study population, all-cause mortality-adjusted OR was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.62). These results provide the first direct evidence that in patients with ESRD, increased aortic stiffness determined by measurement of aortic PWV is a strong independent predictor of all-cause and mainly cardiovascular mortality.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Curr Control Trials Cardiovasc Med
                Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine
                BioMed Central
                1468-6708
                1468-6694
                2005
                20 May 2005
                : 6
                : 1
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
                [2 ]Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Rijnmond-Zuid Medical Center, Clara Location, Olympiaweg 350, 3078 HT Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [4 ]Department of Nephrology, VU Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [5 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Center Alkmaar, Wilhelminalaan 12, 1815 JD Alkmaar, The Netherlands
                [6 ]Center for Biostatistics, Utrecht University, Padualaan 14, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands
                Article
                1468-6708-6-8
                10.1186/1468-6708-6-8
                1156925
                15907201
                Copyright © 2005 Penne et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Research

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