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      Lower Diastolic Blood Pressure was Associated with Higher Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease in the General Population Only in those Using Antihypertensive Medications


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          Background/Aims: The association of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population is not well examined. Methods: Using national health check-up database from 2008 to 2011 in the general Japanese population aged 39–74 years, we evaluated the association between DBP and incidence of CKD 2 years later in 127,954 participants without CKD. DBP was categorized by every 5 mm Hg from the lowest (<60 mm Hg) to the highest category (>100 mm Hg) and was further stratified into those with and without antihypertensive medications (BP meds). We calculated the OR for estimating adjusted risk of incident CKD using logistic regression model. Results: Participants were 62% female and 25.9% with BP meds, mean age of 76 years with estimated glomerular filtration rate of 78.2 ± 13.4 and DBP of 76 ± 11 mm Hg. Two years later, 12,379 (9.7%) developed CKD. Compared to DBP 60–64 mm Hg without BP meds as reference, multivariate analysis showed no difference in CKD risk at any DBP category among those without BP meds. However, in those with BP meds, risk increased according to lower DBP from 95 to 60 mm Hg ( p for trend 0.05) with OR 1.51 (95% CI 1.14–1.99) in DBP <60 mm Hg. In subgroup analysis within those with or without BP meds, CKD risk was lower at higher DBP ( p for trend 0.02) only in those without BP meds. Conclusion: Lower DBP was associated with higher risk of incident CKD only in the general population taking antihypertensive medication.

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          General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study.

          Separate multivariable risk algorithms are commonly used to assess risk of specific atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, ie, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and heart failure. The present report presents a single multivariable risk function that predicts risk of developing all CVD and of its constituents. We used Cox proportional-hazards regression to evaluate the risk of developing a first CVD event in 8491 Framingham study participants (mean age, 49 years; 4522 women) who attended a routine examination between 30 and 74 years of age and were free of CVD. Sex-specific multivariable risk functions ("general CVD" algorithms) were derived that incorporated age, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, treatment for hypertension, smoking, and diabetes status. We assessed the performance of the general CVD algorithms for predicting individual CVD events (coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, or heart failure). Over 12 years of follow-up, 1174 participants (456 women) developed a first CVD event. All traditional risk factors evaluated predicted CVD risk (multivariable-adjusted P<0.0001). The general CVD algorithm demonstrated good discrimination (C statistic, 0.763 [men] and 0.793 [women]) and calibration. Simple adjustments to the general CVD risk algorithms allowed estimation of the risks of each CVD component. Two simple risk scores are presented, 1 based on all traditional risk factors and the other based on non-laboratory-based predictors. A sex-specific multivariable risk factor algorithm can be conveniently used to assess general CVD risk and risk of individual CVD events (coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial disease and heart failure). The estimated absolute CVD event rates can be used to quantify risk and to guide preventive care.
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            A Randomized Trial of Intensive versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control

            New England Journal of Medicine, 373(22), 2103-2116
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              Revised equations for estimated GFR from serum creatinine in Japan.

              Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is limited by differences in creatinine generation among ethnicities. Our previously reported GFR-estimating equations for Japanese had limitations because all participants had a GFR less than 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 and serum creatinine was assayed in different laboratories. Diagnostic test study using a prospective cross-sectional design. New equations were developed in 413 participants and validated in 350 participants. All samples were assayed in a central laboratory. Hospitalized Japanese patients in 80 medical centers. Patients had not participated in the previous study. Measured GFR (mGFR) computed from inulin clearance. Estimated GFR (eGFR) by using the modified isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS)-traceable 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation using the previous Japanese Society of Nephrology Chronic Kidney Disease Initiative (JSN-CKDI) coefficient of 0.741 (equation 1), the previous JSN-CKDI equation (equation 2), and new equations derived in the development data set: modified MDRD Study using a new Japanese coefficient (equation 3), and a 3-variable Japanese equation (equation 4). Performance of equations was assessed by means of bias (eGFR - mGFR), accuracy (percentage of estimates within 15% or 30% of mGFR), root mean squared error, and correlation coefficient. In the development data set, the new Japanese coefficient was 0.808 (95% confidence interval, 0.728 to 0.829) for the IDMS-MDRD Study equation (equation 3), and the 3-variable Japanese equation (equation 4) was eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) = 194 x Serum creatinine(-1.094) x Age(-0.287) x 0.739 (if female). In the validation data set, bias was -1.3 +/- 19.4 versus -5.9 +/- 19.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P = 0.002), and accuracy within 30% of mGFR was 73% versus 72% (P = 0.6) for equation 3 versus equation 1 and -2.1 +/- 19.0 versus -7.9 +/- 18.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (P < 0.001) and 75% versus 73% (P = 0.06) for equation 4 versus equation 2 (P = 0.06), respectively. Most study participants had chronic kidney disease, and some may have had changing GFRs. The new Japanese coefficient for the modified IDMS-MDRD Study equation and the new Japanese equation are more accurate for the Japanese population than the previously reported equations.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                November 2019
                05 September 2019
                : 44
                : 5
                : 973-983
                [_a] aDepartment of Nephrology, Inagi Municipal Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
                [_b] bDepartment of Examination Center, Inagi Municipal Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
                [_c] cSteering Committee for Research on “Design of the Comprehensive Health Care System for Chronic Kidney Disease Based on the Individual Risk Assessment by Specific Health Check”, Fukushima, Japan
                Author notes
                *Hiroo Kawarazaki, MD, Department of Nephrology, Inagi Municipal Hospital, 1171 Ohmaru, Inagi, Tokyo 206-0801 (Japan), E-Mail hirookawarazaki@gmail.com
                Author information
                501828 Kidney Blood Press Res 2019;44:973–983
                © 2019 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 08 May 2019
                : 27 June 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Pages: 11
                Research Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Diastolic blood pressure,Antihypertensive medication,Chronic kidney disease,General population


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