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      Environmental pollution by antibiotics and by antibiotic resistance determinants

      Environmental Pollution

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Antibiotics are among the most successful drugs used for human therapy. However, since they can challenge microbial populations, they must be considered as important pollutants as well. Besides being used for human therapy, antibiotics are extensively used for animal farming and for agricultural purposes. Residues from human environments and from farms may contain antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes that can contaminate natural environments. The clearest consequence of antibiotic release in natural environments is the selection of resistant bacteria. The same resistance genes found at clinical settings are currently disseminated among pristine ecosystems without any record of antibiotic contamination. Nevertheless, the effect of antibiotics on the biosphere is wider than this and can impact the structure and activity of environmental microbiota. Along the article, we review the impact that pollution by antibiotics or by antibiotic resistance genes may have for both human health and for the evolution of environmental microbial populations.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Environmental Pollution
          Environmental Pollution
          Elsevier BV
          02697491
          November 2009
          November 2009
          : 157
          : 11
          : 2893-2902
          Article
          10.1016/j.envpol.2009.05.051
          19560847
          75ebcd18-1327-49ec-ba34-19cee4ff9e46
          © 2009

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