Acute rejection-induced microvascular injury results in graft dysfunction, ultimately leading to graft loss. Infiltration of T cells and monocytes as a consequence of an enhanced endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction appears to play an important role in this deleterious process. Recruitment of these pro-inflammatory cells to the vessel wall is mediated by chemokines such as RANTES. Heterotopic small bowel transplantation was performed in rats with the fully allogeneic Brown Norway-Lewis strain combination and, as a control, the syngeneic Lewis-Lewis strain combination. Intravital microscopy was performed from postoperative day 1–7 in both groups. The percentages of perfused villi and villus stasis, mucosal and muscular functional capillary densities, red blood cell velocities, and finally, firm adherence of leukocytes in postcapillary submucosal venules were assessed. Syngeneic small bowel transplantation revealed homogeneous perfusion of villi and muscle layers over the whole study period. Allogeneic small bowel transplantation showed a decline in perfusion from postoperative day 1 until complete failure on postoperative day 7. This was accompanied by a continuous increase in endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction which reached a plateau on postoperative day 5. Met-RANTES treatment at 200 µg/day for 5 days markedly attenuated both the decrease in functional capillary density and the increased endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction in rats following allogeneic small bowel transplantation. We conclude that blocking chemokine receptors, thereby limiting endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction, may constitute a useful therapeutic approach to the prevention of microcirculatory perfusion failure in acute transplant rejection.