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      Induction of the unfolded protein response by cigarette smoke is primarily an activating transcription factor 4-C/EBP homologous protein mediated process

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          Cigarette smoke is the major risk factor associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent studies propose a link between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and emphysema, demonstrated by increased ER stress markers under smoking conditions. Here, we investigate whether cigarette smoke-induced ER stress is cell specific and correlates with acute and chronic cigarette smoke exposure.


          Gene and protein expression changes in human primary lung cell cultures following cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure were monitored by qPCR and Western blot analysis. Mice and guinea pigs were exposed to cigarette smoke and ER stress markers examined in whole lung homogenates. Inflammatory cells from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 10 days smoke exposed mice were also examined.


          Cigarette smoke induced a trend increase in the ER stress response through an activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) mediated induction of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in primary small airway epithelial cells. Bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages responded similarly to CSE. Wild-type mice and guinea pigs exposed to acute levels of cigarette smoke exhibited increased levels of CHOP but not at significant levels. However, after long-term chronic cigarette smoke exposure, CHOP expression was reduced. Interestingly, inflammatory cells from smoke exposed mice had a significant increase in CHOP/ATF4 expression.


          A trend increase in CHOP levels appear in multiple human lung cell types following acute cigarette smoke exposure in vitro. In vivo, inflammatory cells, predominately macrophages, demonstrate significant cigarette smoke-induced ER stress. Early induction of CHOP in cigarette smoke may play a pivotal role in early induction of lung disease, however in vivo long-term cigarette smoke exposure exhibited a reduction in the ER stress response.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Protein dissociation from GRP78 and secretion are blocked by depletion of cellular ATP levels.

          Secretory proteins expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells interact to various degrees with glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), a resident protein of the endoplasmic reticulum. von Willebrand factor (vWF) and wild-type tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) are efficiently secreted and exhibit a slight transient association with GRP78. Factor VIII and unglycosylated tPA are inefficiently secreted and display a more stable association with GRP78. We have studied the effect of ATP depletion mediated by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) treatment on GRP78 association and secretion of factor VIII and vWF that are coexpressed in CHO cells. Low concentrations of CCCP in the medium prevented disassociation of factor VIII from GRP78 and blocked its secretion. In the same cells, higher concentrations of CCCP were required to block secretion of vWF. Thus, the block to factor VIII secretion at low CCCP concentrations did not result from a general defect in secretion. Secretion of unglycosylated tPA but not wild-type tPA from CHO cells was also blocked by low concentrations of CCCP. The increased sensitivity to CCCP concentration observed for secretion of factor VIII and unglycosylated tPA compared to wild-type tPA and vWF correlates with their degree of interaction with GRP78. In vivo, dissociation from GRP78 may be a primary ATP-dependent step in transport from the endoplasmic reticulum. ATP requirements for secretion of various proteins may vary.
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            Heavy-chain binding protein recognizes aberrant polypeptides translocated in vitro.

            Immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (BiP, GRP-78) associates tightly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with newly synthesized proteins that are incompletely assembled, have mutant structures, or are incorrectly glycosylated. The function of BiP has been suggested to be to prevent secretion of incorrectly folded or incompletely assembled protein, to promote folding or assembly of proteins, or to solubilize protein aggregates within the ER lumen. Here we examine the interaction of BiP with newly synthesized polypeptides in an in vitro protein translation-translocation system. We find that BiP forms tight complexes with nonglycosylated yeast invertase and incorrectly disulphide-bonded prolactin, but does not associate detectably with either glycosylated invertase or correctly disulphide-bonded prolactin. Moreover, BiP associates detectably only with completed chains of prolactin, not with chains undergoing synthesis. We conclude that BiP recognizes and binds with high affinity in vitro to aberrantly folded or aberrantly glycosylated polypeptides, but not to all nascent chains as they are folding.
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              Effects of antioxidants on glucose-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in endothelial cells.

              Hyperglycemia-induced endothelial cell dysfunction can be the result of increased oxidative stress and concomitant increase in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To test the extent of coupling between these two stresses, the effect of antioxidant vitamins on glucose-induced oxidative stress and ER stress in endothelial cells were studied. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with physiological (5.5mM) or supra-physiological (27.5mM) dextrose concentrations, and ER stress and oxidative stress were measured. Additional experiments were carried out in HUVEC over-expressing exogenous glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) and treated with 5.5mM dextrose. Supra-physiological dextrose concentrations increased both ER stress and oxidative stress. However, while oxidative stress could be effectively inhibited with alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, these antioxidants had no effect on ER stress. Increasing intracellular glucose levels by exogenous expression of Glut-1 in endothelial cells also increased oxidative stress and ER stress. Whereas the oxidative stress in these cells was reduced with alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid and dimethylsulfoxide, the ER stress could not be ameliorated with alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid. These results indicate that ER stress can be uncoupled from oxidative stress and antioxidants can ameliorate the latter without altering the ER stress induced by hyperglycemia. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                02 June 2011
                : 6
                : 309-319
                Department of Medicine, Divisions of Molecular and Pulmonary Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jeanine D’Armiento, Department of Medicine, Divisions of Molecular and Pulmonary Medicine, Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA, Tel +1 212 305 3745, Fax +1 212 305 1188, Email jmd12@
                © 2011 Geraghty et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                chop, copd, er stress, cigarette smoke


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