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      Increasing Hip Fractures in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis

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          Background/Aims: Dialysis patients are at increased risk for hip fractures. Because changes in treatment of metabolic bone disease in this population may have impacted bone fragility, this study aims to analyze the longitudinal risk for fractures in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods: Using the United States Renal Data System database from 1992 to 2009, the temporal trend in hip fractures requiring hospitalization was analyzed using an overdispersed Poisson regression model. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to assess the adjusted effect of dialysis modality on hip fractures. Results: 842,028 HD and 87,086 PD patients were included. There was a significant temporal increase in hip fractures in both HD and PD with stabilization of rates after 2005. With stratification, the increase in fractures occurred in patients who were white and over 65 years of age. In adjusted analyses, HD patients had 1.6 times greater odds of hip fracture than PD patients (OR 1.60 95% CI 1.52, 1.68, p < 0.001). Conclusions: In contrast to the declining hip fracture rates in the general population, we identified a temporal rise in incidence of hip fractures in HD and PD patients. HD patients were at a higher risk for hip fractures than PD patients after adjustment for recognized bone fragility risk factors. The increase in fracture rate over time was limited to older white patients in both HD and PD, the demographics being consistent with osteoporosis risk. Further research is indicated to better understand the longitudinal trend in hip fractures and the discordance between HD and PD. i 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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          Most cited references 11

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          The three-year incidence of fracture in chronic kidney disease.

          Knowing a person's fracture risk according to their kidney function, gender, and age may influence clinical management and decision-making. Using healthcare databases from Ontario, Canada, we conducted a cohort study of 679,114 adults of 40 years and over (mean age 62 years) stratified at cohort entry by estimated glomerular filtration rate ((eGFR) 60 and over, 45-59, 30-44, 15-29, and under 15 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), gender, and age (40-65 and over 65 years). The primary outcome was the 3-year cumulative incidence of fracture (proportion of adults who fractured (hip, forearm, pelvis, or proximal humerus) at least once within 3-years of follow-up). Additional analyses examined the fracture incidence per 1000 person-years, hip fracture alone, stratification by prior fracture, stratification by eGFR and proteinuria, and 3-year cumulative incidence of falls with hospitalization. The 3-year cumulative incidence of fracture significantly increased in a graded manner in adults with a lower eGFR for both genders and both age groups. The 3-year cumulative incidence of fracture in women over 65 years of age across the 5 eGFR groups were 4.3%, 5.8%, 6.5%, 7.8%, and 9.6%, respectively. Corresponding estimates for men over 65 years were 1.6%, 2.0%, 2.7%, 3.8%, and 5.0%, respectively. Similar graded relationships were found for falls with hospitalization and additional analyses. Thus, many adults with chronic kidney disease will fall and fracture. Results can be used for prognostication and guidance of sample size requirements for fracture prevention trials.
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            Biomolecular basis of the role of diabetes mellitus in osteoporosis and bone fractures.

             Bipradas Roy (2013)
            Osteoporosis has become a serious health problem throughout the world which is associated with an increased risk of bone fractures and mortality among the people of middle to old ages. Diabetes is also a major health problem among the people of all age ranges and the sufferers due to this abnormality increasing day by day. The aim of this review is to summarize the possible mechanisms through which diabetes may induce osteoporosis. Diabetes mellitus generally exerts its effect on different parts of the body including bone cells specially the osteoblast and osteoclast, muscles, retina of the eyes, adipose tissue, endocrine system specially parathyroid hormone (PTH) and estrogen, cytokines, nervous system and digestive system. Diabetes negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation and function while positively regulates osteoclast differentiation and function through the regulation of different intermediate factors and thereby decreases bone formation while increases bone resorption. Some factors such as diabetic neuropathy, reactive oxygen species, Vitamin D, PTH have their effects on muscle cells. Diabetes decreases the muscle strength through regulating these factors in various ways and ultimately increases the risk of fall that may cause bone fractures.
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              Declining hip fracture rates in the United States.


                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2014
                26 November 2014
                : 40
                : 5
                : 451-457
                aHofstra NSLIJ School of Medicine, North Shore University Hospital and Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Great Neck, N.Y., bDenver Nephrologists, PC, Denver, Co., and cKings County Hospital Center, College of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, N.Y., USA
                Author notes
                *Steven Fishbane, MD, Division of Kidney Diseases and Hypertension, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, 100 Community Drive, 2nd Floor, Great Neck, NY 11021 (USA), E-Mail
                369039 Am J Nephrol 2014;40:451-457
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Pages: 7
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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