Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Osteoporosis Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that osteoporosis is closely associated with common chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disorders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a chronic inflammatory airway disease but now well known to be associated with various systemic comorbidities including osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are extremely common in COPD patients, which have significant impacts on their quality of life (QOL), activities of daily life (ADL), respiratory function, and possibly their prognosis. COPD-associated osteoporosis is however extremely under-recognized, hence undertreated. Recent studies have suggested that both decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and impaired bone quality compromise bone strength causing fractures in COPD. In COPD patients, various general clinical risk factors for osteoporosis are present including smoking, older age, low body weight, and physical inactivity. In addition, disease-related risk factors such as decreased pulmonary function, inflammation, glucocorticoid use and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency have been linked to the development of osteoporosis in COPD. Increased awareness of osteoporosis in COPD, especially that of high prevalence of vertebral fractures is called upon among general physicians as well as pulmonologists. Routine screening for osteoporosis and risk assessment of fractures will enable physicians to diagnose COPD patients with comorbid osteoporosis at an early stage. Timely prevention of developing osteoporosis together with appropriate treatment of established osteoporosis may improve QOL and ADL of the COPD patients, preserve their lung function and eventually result in better prognosis in these patients.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 100

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.

      The objective was to provide guidelines to clinicians for the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency with an emphasis on the care of patients who are at risk for deficiency. The Task Force was composed of a Chair, six additional experts, and a methodologist. The Task Force received no corporate funding or remuneration. Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence and discussions during several conference calls and e-mail communications. The draft prepared by the Task Force was reviewed successively by The Endocrine Society's Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee, Clinical Affairs Core Committee, and cosponsoring associations, and it was posted on The Endocrine Society web site for member review. At each stage of review, the Task Force received written comments and incorporated needed changes. Considering that vitamin D deficiency is very common in all age groups and that few foods contain vitamin D, the Task Force recommended supplementation at suggested daily intake and tolerable upper limit levels, depending on age and clinical circumstances. The Task Force also suggested the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level by a reliable assay as the initial diagnostic test in patients at risk for deficiency. Treatment with either vitamin D(2) or vitamin D(3) was recommended for deficient patients. At the present time, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend screening individuals who are not at risk for deficiency or to prescribe vitamin D to attain the noncalcemic benefit for cardiovascular protection.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy.

          (2001)
        To clarify the factors associated with prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis, and to present the most recent information available in these areas. From March 27-29, 2000, a nonfederal, nonadvocate, 13-member panel was convened, representing the fields of internal medicine, family and community medicine, endocrinology, epidemiology, orthopedic surgery, gerontology, rheumatology, obstetrics and gynecology, preventive medicine, and cell biology. Thirty-two experts from these fields presented data to the panel and an audience of 699. Primary sponsors were the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and the National Institutes of Health Office of Medical Applications of Research. MEDLINE was searched for January 1995 through December 1999, and a bibliography of 2449 references provided to the panel. Experts prepared abstracts for presentations with relevant literature citations. Scientific evidence was given precedence over anecdotal experience. The panel, answering predefined questions, developed conclusions based on evidence presented in open forum and the literature. The panel composed a draft statement, which was read and circulated to the experts and the audience for public discussion. The panel resolved conflicts and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The draft statement was posted on the Web on March 30, 2000, and updated with the panel's final revisions within a few weeks. Though prevalent in white postmenopausal women, osteoporosis occurs in all populations and at all ages and has significant physical, psychosocial, and financial consequences. Risks for osteoporosis (reflected by low bone mineral density [BMD]) and for fracture overlap but are not identical. More attention should be paid to skeletal health in persons with conditions associated with secondary osteoporosis. Clinical risk factors have an important but poorly validated role in determining who should have BMD measurement, in assessing fracture risk, and in determining who should be treated. Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake is crucial to develop optimal peak bone mass and to preserve bone mass throughout life. Supplementation with these 2 nutrients may be necessary in persons not achieving recommended dietary intake. Gonadal steroids are important determinants of peak and lifetime bone mass in men, women, and children. Regular exercise, especially resistance and high-impact activities, contributes to development of high peak bone mass and may reduce risk of falls in older persons. Assessment of bone mass, identification of fracture risk, and determination of who should be treated are the optimal goals when evaluating patients for osteoporosis. Fracture prevention is the primary treatment goal for patients with osteoporosis. Several treatments have been shown to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures, including those that enhance bone mass and reduce the risk or consequences of falls. Adults with vertebral, rib, hip, or distal forearm fractures should be evaluated for osteoporosis and given appropriate therapy.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Discrepancies in bone mineral density and fracture risk in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes--a meta-analysis.

           P Vestergaard (2007)
          Diabetes affects bone metabolism. The hypothesis was that type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) affects BMD and fracture risk differently. Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched using the terms "diabetes", "fracture", and "bone mineral". Hip fracture risk was increased in T1D (RR = 6.94, 95% CI: 3.25-14.78, five studies) and T2D (1.38, 95% CI: 1.25-1.53, eight studies) compared to subjects without diabetes. The increase in relative hip fracture risk was significantly higher in T1D than in T2D. BMD Z-score was decreased in the spine (mean +/- SEM -0.22 +/- 0.01) and hip (-0.37 +/- 0.16) in T1D and increased in the spine (0.41 +/- 0.01) and hip (0.27 +/- 0.01) in T2D. A meta-regression showed that body mass index (BMI) was a major determinant for BMD in both the spine and hip. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) was not linked to BMD. The increase in fracture risk was higher and BMD lower in patients with complications to diabetes. Hip fracture risk is increased in both T1D and T2D, whereas BMD is increased in T2D and decreased in T1D. A common factor such as complications may explain the increase in fracture risk, whereas BMI may ameliorate the increase in fracture risk in T2D.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Third Department of Medicine, Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center, Japan.
            Author notes
            Corresponding author: Ryo Okazaki. Third Department of Medicine, Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center, 3426-3 Anesaki Ichihara, Chiba 299-0111, Japan. Tel: +81-436-62-1211, Fax: +81-436-7340, rokazaki@ 123456med.teikyo-u.ac.jp
            Journal
            J Bone Metab
            J Bone Metab
            JBM
            Journal of Bone Metabolism
            The Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research
            2287-6375
            2287-7029
            August 2016
            31 August 2016
            : 23
            : 3
            : 111-120
            5018603 10.11005/jbm.2016.23.3.111
            Copyright © 2016 The Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Review Article

            Comments

            Comment on this article