36
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Th17 Response and Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases

      , *

      International Journal of Inflammation

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The proinflammatory activity of T helper 17 (Th17) cells can be beneficial to the host during infection. However, uncontrolled or inappropriate Th17 activation has been linked to several autoimmune and autoinflammatory pathologies. Indeed, preclinical and clinical data show that Th17 cells are associated with several autoimmune diseases such as arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, and lupus. Furthermore, targeting the interleukin-17 (IL-17) pathway has attenuated disease severity in preclinical models of autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, a recent report brings to light a potential role for Th17 cells in the autoinflammatory disorder adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD). Whether Th17 cells are the cause or are directly involved in AOSD remains to be shown. In this paper, we discuss the biology of Th17 cells, their role in autoimmune disease development, and in AOSD in particular, as well as the growing interest of the pharmaceutical industry in their use as therapeutic targets.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 95

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          A distinct lineage of CD4 T cells regulates tissue inflammation by producing interleukin 17.

          Interleukin 17 (IL-17) has been linked to autoimmune diseases, although its regulation and function have remained unclear. Here we have evaluated in vitro and in vivo the requirements for the differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into effector T helper cells that produce IL-17. This process required the costimulatory molecules CD28 and ICOS but was independent of the cytokines and transcription factors required for T helper type 1 or type 2 differentiation. Furthermore, both IL-4 and interferon-gamma negatively regulated T helper cell production of IL-17 in the effector phase. In vivo, antibody to IL-17 inhibited chemokine expression in the brain during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas overexpression of IL-17 in lung epithelium caused chemokine production and leukocyte infiltration. Thus, IL-17 expression characterizes a unique T helper lineage that regulates tissue inflammation.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            TGFbeta in the context of an inflammatory cytokine milieu supports de novo differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells.

            We describe de novo generation of IL-17-producing T cells from naive CD4 T cells, induced in cocultures of naive CD4 T cells and naturally occurring CD4+ CD25+ T cells (Treg) in the presence of TLR3, TLR4, or TLR9 stimuli. Treg can be substituted by TGFbeta1, which, together with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, supports the differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells, a process that is amplified by IL-1beta and TNFalpha. We could not detect a role for IL-23 in the differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells but confirmed its importance for their survival and expansion. Transcription factors GATA-3 and T-bet, as well as its target Hlx, are absent in IL-17-producing T cells, and they do not express the negative regulator for TGFbeta signaling, Smad7. Our data indicate that, in the presence of IL-6, TGFbeta1 subverts Th1 and Th2 differentiation for the generation of IL-17-producing T cells.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Gut-residing segmented filamentous bacteria drive autoimmune arthritis via T helper 17 cells.

              Commensal microbes can have a substantial impact on autoimmune disorders, but the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain largely unexplored. We report that autoimmune arthritis was strongly attenuated in the K/BxN mouse model under germ-free (GF) conditions, accompanied by reductions in serum autoantibody titers, splenic autoantibody-secreting cells, germinal centers, and the splenic T helper 17 (Th17) cell population. Neutralization of interleukin-17 prevented arthritis development in specific-pathogen-free K/BxN mice resulting from a direct effect of this cytokine on B cells to inhibit germinal center formation. The systemic deficiencies of the GF animals reflected a loss of Th17 cells from the small intestinal lamina propria. Introduction of a single gut-residing species, segmented filamentous bacteria, into GF animals reinstated the lamina propria Th17 cell compartment and production of autoantibodies, and arthritis rapidly ensued. Thus, a single commensal microbe, via its ability to promote a specific Th cell subset, can drive an autoimmune disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Inflam
                IJI
                International Journal of Inflammation
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-8040
                2042-0099
                2012
                15 November 2011
                : 2012
                Affiliations
                Department of Immunity and Inflammation, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 777 Old Saw Mill River Road, Tarrytown, NY 10591, USA
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Petros Efthimiou

                Article
                10.1155/2012/819467
                3249891
                22229105
                Copyright © 2012 J. C. Waite and D. Skokos.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Immunology

                Comments

                Comment on this article